Both in vitro and in vivo were studied the effects of three peptides, tetragastrin, caerulein, and pancreozymin, each sharing C terminal tetrapeptide, and acetylcholine on the enzyme secretion of the rabbit pancreas. The experiment in vitro was carried out using the rabbit isolated pancreas by modified Rothman's method. Investigation of full dose response of three peptides both in vivo and in vitro revealed that they stimulated directly the pancreatic enzyme secretion, the order of their potency being caerulein, pancreozymin, and tetragastrin. Atropine did not inhibit the action of peptides, but it inhibited that of acetylcholine which also stimulated the enzyme secretion directly. The pattern of SDS gel electrophoresis and the activity ratio of trypsinogen to amylase of the secreted pancreatic juicewere always constant, which suggested the parallel secretion of the pancreatic enzymes. This “parallelism” was influenced neither by kind of stimulator, degree of stimulation, nor by condition of in vivo and in vitro. It is concluded that both peptides and acetylcholine stimulate directly the pancreatic acinal cell to secrete pancreatic enzymes in parallel manner, probably via common intracellular mechanism, while their receptor sites are assumed to be different.
1. Enzymes output for 40min.-postpancreozymin period and bicarbonate concentration or volume output for 60min.-postsecretin period seemed to be useful for evaluation of pancreatic function in pancreozymin-secretin test. 2. Tryptic activity of aspirated duodenal juicewas the best parameter compared with other parameters. 3. The close correlation (r-0.7) between the enzyme output and the protein output of the juice was observed. 4. It was suggested from our cases that the upper gastrointestinal disorder or pancreatic lymph congestion might cause pancreatic disorders. 5. Double pancreozymin response test was employed. This result revealed that the enzyme output of the second pancreozymin stimulation wasa better parameter.
Ketone body (ß-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) in blood of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis was enzymatically measured. There was no significant difference in mean values of ketone body in these patients to healthy subjects. But it was observed that concentration of ketone body in patients with severe parenchymal damage of the liver were low. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acid in serum of the patients with chronic liver diseases was elevated, but as compared with this elevation, increase of ketone body was notobserved. Further, in order to study on this metabolic derangement, ketone body and some metabolites in liver or in blood of rats injuried with carbontetrachloride were measured. More increase of nonesterified fatty acid in serum of these rats than that of control rats were observed, whereas decrease of ketone body in the rats with liver injury in contrast with that of control was found. There was a marked decrease of hepatic acetyl-CoA concentration. In addition to this, correlation between acetyl-CoA and ketone body concentrations of rat liver was observed. Moreover, acetoacetate formation from acetyl-CoA in liver homogenate was disturbed in the rats with liver injury. From these results it was concluded that the decrease of ketone body formation in chronic liver diseases and in experimental liver injury was induced probably by decreased oxidation of nonesterified fatty acid and decreased synthesis of ketone body from acetyl-CoA in liver mitochondria.
To establish the radiological diagnosis of flat type of early gastric carcinoma, we made radiological and endoscopic examination, together with the study of resected specimen and histology. During five years 1968 to 1973, 24 cases of IIb had been operated including 2typical IIb lesions, one concomitant typical IIb lesion, 6IIb-like lesions and 15 concomitant IIb-like lesions. The patients' age was as follows; 4 cases of the third decade, one case of the forth decade, 12 cases of the fifth decade and 7 cases of the seventhdecade. Average age was 54 year-old and half. Reported case consisted of 19 male and 5 female patients. All of typical IIb lesions were finally diagnosed by the help of pathology. Radiographic diagnosiso f IIb-likel esionsw ere divided into I) slightldye pressed flatt ype, II) intermediate type, III) mixed type and IV) slightley levatedf latt ype. 1. X-ray findingo f I) slightldye pressedf latt ype showed “furred and fissureds” hadow in the little dense barium coating. 2. The findingo f II) intermediatet ype was of irregulagr ranular appearance resembling the tortoise-shell which was covered with faint barium. 3. The finding of III) mixed type was the mixture of ovoid rough granules and of faint barium shadow. 4. The findingo f IV) slightley levatedf latt ype was the gatheringof flatt ransparentshadows each of which was circumscribed by irregular ditches. Demonstration of these Xraysfor diagnosis was made possible by the double contrast method preferably using middle to alarge quantity of air. In endoscopic diagnosis of IIb-like lesions, the following factors must be made much of; redding, patched color, fading, lost of lust and unevenness. Furthermore, attachment of mucus, very slight depression or elevation and bleeding must been also taken into consideration. In resected specimen, the extent of IIb-like lesions weremostly 50-100mm in diameters, but the average was 41.7×45.0mm. The lesion was located forthe most part at the gastric angle. Most of ther esectemdu cosa ofIIb-liklee sionssh owedc learb orderf, a dingl, o sto f lust and very slight depression or elevation. In histological finding of IIb lesions, adenocarcinoma mucocellurare was found in 12 cases and adenocarcinoma tubullare also 12 cases.
Gastric xanthomatosis are frequently found in men but their production in the experimentalanimals has not been reported so far. Recently we found gastric xanthomatous polyp and gastric xanthomatosis in rabbits who had been treated with chlormadinon acetate undergoing cholesterol feeding. Twenty male albino rabbits aged 6 to 7months were divided into two groups; ten control group of rabbits were given orally one capsul of potato starch as placebo daily for 15weeks (placebo control group), another ten was given 1mg/kg/day of chlormadinon acetate for 15weeks (chlormadinon acetat group). Both groups were fed by 1% cholesterol for the same period as well. During the course of the experiments the body weight were record weekly and serum cholesterol level were mesured every two weeks. After 15weeks all rabbits were sacrificed for pathological examination. One rabbits died during the course of the experiment in placebo control group and chlormadinon acetate group were all survived for 15weeks. After 15weeeks serum cholesterol level were 1599.2±251.8 (SE) mg/dl on placebo control group and 1690.8±176.8 (SE) mg/dl on chlormadinon acetate group. The most characteristic findings of the stomach were polypoid and granular lesion on cardia and its neighbor with rabbits of chlormadinon acetate group. On histological examination thesepolypoid and granular lesion were occupied by foamy cells and these foamy cells were stained to be bright red by Sudan 111. There are many sudanofilic cells on the propria mucosa of other part of gastric mucosa. These histological findings are similar to gastric xanthoma found in human stomach. Placebo control group did not showed any polypoid and granular lesion by macroscopic examination, but on the histological examination some sudanofilic cells were scarecely found on the portion of propria mucosa. These findings sugest that the conbination of chlormadinon acetate and hyperlipemia may play an important role for the genesis of experimental gastric xanthomatosis and may be used for the study on etiology of human gastric xantoma.
Pancreaticj uice and bile were separatelyc ollectedb y insertinga polyethylenet ube via duodenum using rats. Immediately after intravenous administration of secretin (15 units per rat), an anticancero r antimicrobiald rug was given intravenously. Pancreaticj uice and bile were collected 1-hour's period. Serum and urine were taken after 1-hour after administration of drugs. The tissues of pancreasa nd liver wereh omogenizedin salinea fter 1-hour. The drugsu sed and the dosesg ivenw erea s follows;M itomycin C (1.6mg per rat), Ampicillin (250mgp er rat), and Cephalothin (250mg per rat). The determinationo f activityo f each drug was made by the microbiologicaal ssay-procedure. F ive or six rats were used in experiments about each drug. The significanht igh concentrationo f Mitomycin C was showni nurine and bile. The concentrationo f 5-Fluorouraciwl as seen in urine and blood; moderate concentrationw as shown in pancreaticj uice and bile. The high concentrationo f Neocarzinostatinw as seen in urine and pancreaticj uice. The high concentration of Cephalothinw as seeni n bile and pancreatic juice. The concentration of ampicillin was high in blood, urine, and bile. In conclusions, relatively high excretion into pancreatic juice was demonstrated in 5-Fluorouracil, Neo carzinostatin, and Cephalothin.