Experiments on amine production by intestinal bacteria have been reported in the previous papers. In this study, decomposition of various amines produced from amino acid by intestinal bacteria was examined. Amines used in this experiments were histamine, agmatine, putrescine and tyramine. Intestinal bacteria were isolated from feces of healthy persons. Bacteria were cultured in liquid culture medium containing each amine. And then decomposition substances in culture filtrate were examined by various chromatographical techniques. Amine oxidase activity was determined by Warburg's manometric method. Amine oxidase activity was higher in E. coli and Klebsiella in general, L. bifidus and L. acid. had not so much for this activity. Various bacteria had considerable difference on amine decomposition. Some strains had some amine oxidase activities or not so. Various bacteria tested in this study did not produce N-acetyl tyramine from tyramine, but p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was proved. As the decomposition product of histamine, imidazol acetic acid was proved. As that of agmatine and putrescine, α-amino butyric acid was proved. Amine production and decomposition in the intestinal canal would be affected by amino acid decarboxylase and amine oxidase of enterobacteria. And then it was demonstrated that optimun pH of these enzymes had considerable differences. It was clarified that amine concentration in the digestive canal was affected by many factors in digestive canal.
Immunoreactive gastrin (IRG) was determined by double antibody technique mainly in gastrointestinal tissues and in the other various tissues obtained at autopsy, as well as by biopsy operating under endoscopy. The largest amount of IRG (4, 937ng/g(w/w)) was found in the antral mucosa among tissues tested, and the concentrations in the gastrointestinal tissues decreased following the distal portion, showing an amount of 3.2ng/g in the ileum. It was noted that the mean IRG level in the antral mucosa of cases accompanying with active gastroduodenal ulcer at autopsy was relatively lower as 617ng/g(w/w), and an abundant amounts of IRG were found in biopsy specimens not only of the antral mucosa (345.5ng/mg) but of the corporal mucosa (17.4ng/mg) of the stomach from a patient with pernicious anemia. IRG in boiled extracts of gastrointestinal mucosa was fractionated by use of Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and starch gel electrophoresis. Most of IRG (more than 90%) in the antral mucosa was separated in region of little G (LG), and big G (BG) showed an increase following distal portion of the duodenum. It was, however, interesting that a little amount of big big G was detected in gastric mucosa from a patient with pernicious anemia. Summarizing the results, production, storage and release mechanism of gastrin was discussed.
In 11 dogs with intact vagus nerves, the administration of hypertonic glucose solution into proximal small intestine resulted in significant decrease of the superior mesenteric arterial blood flow, significant increase of the carotic arterial blood flow, rise of both plasma 5-HT and histamine levels in portal vein, and almost all of 5-HT releasa from enterochromaffin cells. In 15 dogs in which both truncal vagi were severed, the administration of hypertonic glucose solution into proximal small intestine resulted in significant increase of the superior mesenteric arterial blood flow, significant decrease of the carotic arterial blood flow, significant rise of plasma 5-HT levels in portal vein, and a imcomplete release of 5-HT from the enterochromaffin cells. In 15 dogs in which both gastric vagi were severed, the administration of hypertonic glucose solution into proximal small intestine, resulted in slight decrease of the superior mesenteric arterial blood flow, slight increase of the carotic arterial blood flow in most cases, significant rise of plasma histamine levels in portal vein, and imcomplete release of 5-HT from the enterochromaffin cells. These findings suggest that selective gastric vagotomy will prevent the dumping syndrome.
An easy and dependable assessment of the gastric acidity using a telemetering capsule has been proved to be a new field of gastric function tests. The gastric acidity in the remnant stomachs was measured by the pH capsule in 100 patients, 26 of whom were known to have stomal ulcers. Gastric secretion was stimulated by subcutaneous use of tetragastrin (4μg/Kg) and potassium bicarbonate was loaded for neutralization. In 14 cases pH values were recorded by both intubation and capsule method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The capsule test is a more physiologic testing method of the gastric juice in comparison with the conventional tubing method, and acid secretion measured by the tube suction method is considered to be less reliable as for the gastric remnants. 2) During the immediate postoperative periods, pH in the remnant stomach fell into two groups, namely pH below 3.0 and pH above 5.1. But it gradually shifted into individual proper pH and stabilized in 6 months and thereafter. 3) About 90% of the patients showed fall of pH value in the remnant stomachs by loading 4μg/Kg of tetragastrin and the lowest values in 30 to 40 minutes following the potassium bicarbonate loading. 4) In the group in which gastrin responses were good, most of the patients had basal pH values less than 3.0. It was these patients who had postoperative complaints. 5) The acid content of the remnant stomachs was approximated by measuring amount of potassium bicarbonate reqired to raise pH over 4.0 in 45 minutes following gastrin loading. Free acid in the remnant stomachs was below 0.25mEq in the non-stomal ulcer group. 6) All 26 cases with the stomal ulcers had basal pH less than 2.0 and they were symptomatic. The ulcers were solitary in nature and were classified Ul III to IV. The majority of the ulcers were located in the efferent loops. Only two patients had the ulcers in the remnant stomachs. 7) Medical treatments relieved symptoms in the half of these patients with stomal ulcers, but no permanent decrease of the acid secretion would be attained by the medical treatments. Therefore, surgical intervention will be required in the appropriate time.
Isoamylases identified by use of agar or cellulose acetate electrophoresis and quantified by densitometory of the zymogram. In normal human serum there are 2 types of isoamylases present, namely pancreatic (P1) and salivary (S1) isoamylase. In fifty sera of normal subjects, average of amylase activity of isoamylase P1 and isoamylase S1 were 54 and 57 somogyi units, respectively. In the sera of patients with acute pancreatitis, abnormal of isoamylases were found to appear. When compared with normal serum, three additional isoamylases were found in sera of these patients. They were named P2, P3 and P4, P4 was found in serum of a patient with most severe type of acute pancreatitis. When the inflammatory process was going to subside, P4, P3 and P2 disappeared one by one according to this order. Similary abnormal isoamylases such as S2 and S3 were detected in the serum of patients with acute parotitis. These abnormal isoamylases were proved not to be the subunits of amylase by use of gel filtration. The zymogram of liver homogenate was identical with that of serum, indicating that the liver is not the organ to produce amylase.
Careful upper gastrointestinal survey including gastrointestinal X-ray series, gastric and/or duodenal fiberscopy, and endoscopic biopsy was carried out for associated lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract in 11 cases with familial polyposis during the past 11 years. These examinations revealed the presence of polyp(s) and/or carcinomas of the stomach and/ or duodenum in nine or 82 per cent. In 8 of the 9 cases polyp(s) were noted. The polyps were present in 5 cases in both stomach and duodenum including one case with concomitant presence of multiple gastric adenocarcinomas. Two cases had polyps in the duodenum and one in the stomach. Histological examination revealed all polyps to be adenomas except for one with multiple hamartomatous polyposis of the stomach. In remaining one case, multiple gastric carcinomas composed of signet-ring cells without presence of polyp were found to be present. Follow-up study revealed the possible malignant change of polyp in one case. The rather frequent coexistence of gastroduodenal lesions with familial polyposis and their malignant potential indicate the importance of routine follow-up study on the upper gastrointestinal tract in dealing with familial polyposis of the colon.
For the purpose of making clear a clinical significance of duodenitis, We had clinically examined it synthetically on the bases of clinical symptomes, X-ray examinations, endoscopic findings, histologic findings of biopsy speciemens and magnified observations and micro vascular patterns of biopsy specimens of the villous under the dissecting microscope, in addition to the enzymological studies. Fundamentally, We produced the inflammatory conditions in the duodenal mucosa of dogs and examined according to above mentioned process. 1) The histological findings of biopsy speciemens were so examined that our criteria set up by reference to a degree of iflammatory changes and a type of its cells. 2) The endoscopic findings of duodenitis was classified into three types, erosive, hyperplastic and atrophic type. 3) The Al-p ase activity of the duodenal mucosa and its localization changed according to its inflammatory condition. 4) The Al-p ase activity of the duodenal mucosa indicated a low value in the case of the atrophic type, while in the case of hyperplastic type it showed similar value compare with normal one. 5) Gross appearance of the duodenal mucosa of dogs with acute inflammatory condition which were produced by chemical stimulation were reddish and erosive, and its Al-p ase activity decreased comparison with normal one, while in the case of chronic inflammatory condition the surface was uneven and tough, and the activity recovered same level in normal mucosa.