Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
Online ISSN : 1349-7693
Print ISSN : 0446-6586
Volume 76 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Toshiharu AIZAWA, Toshio HONDA, Kazuo TAKANASHI, Shigeki NAKAGAWA, Mos ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 157-167
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    "Scanning electron microscopic studies of the intestinal mucosa have been reported by several authors. However, few of them gave any fine ultrastructure of the surface, because the established methdology was not available for them to remove mucus.
    The small intestinal mucosa had been observed with the treatment of Pluronic F68.
    By improving this method, ultrasturcture of the surface were exposed and it resulted in obtaining successful clearer observations.
    BRIJ 35 and Tween 80 were examined for mucus-removing action of the small intestine by scanning electron microscope (SEM). These 3 surfactants were selected according to the results of Yonezawa's "Light microscopic studies of the small intestina. mucosa exposed to various surfactants."
    Each of the surfactants was injected into the intestine of ddY-strain mice after laparotomy. After the defined time parts of intestine were removed, washed by physiological saline, and prepared for SEM specimens. The specimens were examined with the field emission type o the Hitachi S-700 scanning electron microscope. Conclusions are:
    1. The action as "injury" to the intestine was observed most conspicuously in BRIJ 35, and most slightly in Tween 80. The "detergent effect" was most remarkable in Pluronic F68 which injured slightly to the small intestinal mucosa. That is, it was found that a Pluronic F68 pretreatment of the intestine provides a very effective result to remove mucus.
    2. The concentration of it was critical, and 5% Pluronic F68 gave fine ultrastructurew of the small intestinal mucosa, and it made capable for successful clear observations. It is expected that this surfactant will be used for their broad application of SEM investigations.
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  • Fumio MISAKI, Zenji SASAKI, Keiichi KAWAI
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 168-174
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The 50% constipation dose (CD50) to healthy volunteers of loperamide hydrochloride, a new synthetic antidiarrheal agent, was statistically estimated using the up-and-down method. At the same time, effects of the drug on subjective symptoms, laboratry findings were observed. Furthermore, plasma concentration were determined using radioimmunoassay in some volunteers.
    As a result of it, CD50 in two groups of healthy volunteers was 3.2mg/day and 6.96mg/day respectively. As concerns subjetive symptoms, sensation of fullness, rumbling and abdominal pain were observed more frequently and severely in a subject in whom constipation was induced. Apart from abdominal symptoms, drowsiness was complained in two subjects. The plasma concentrations of loperamide at the steady state during repeated intake of the drug every 24 hours were 0.5, 1.5, and 2.7ng/ml at daily intake of 2, 4, and 8mg respectively.
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  • Yoichi ARAKAWA, Hirotatsu GOJI, Kazuaki YATA, Shinichi KAKUMU
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 175-183
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed for detecting autoantibody to liverspecific membrane lipoprotein (anti-LSP) in sera of patients with various liver diseases. LSP was prepared from normal rat livers and antibody to LSP was obtained by repeated injection of LSP into rabbits. Rat LSP was labeled with 125I (Chloramine-T).
    Studies were undertaken on 118 cases (173 samples) with liver diseases and 50 healthy subjects. The frequency and titer of anti-LSP were simiar for HBsAg positive and negative cases with both acute and chronic liver diseases. Patients with chronic active hpatitis had the highest frequency (25 of 44 cases, 57%) and of the anti-LSP positive cases, the mean titer in patients with chronic active hepatitis tended to be the highest when compared to those with other groups of liver disease. In patients recovered from acute viral heaptitis, anti-LSP was transiently positive (7 of 20 cases, 35%) in the acute phase, whereas in those who progressed to chronic hpatitis, anti-LSP was positive in 6 of 10 patients when the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis was made by liver biopsy.
    These data indicate that an autoimmune reaction directed against LSP can be initiatedduring the acute phase of viral hepatitis and it may persist in chronic hepatitis in bothHBsAg positive and negative cases.
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  • Satoshi TAKAGI
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 184-195
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ninety four patients with chronic alcoholics were studied. IgA were significantly elevated (40%) in chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis but IgM, IgA and IgG levels were all elevated in patients with cirrhosis. Furthermoreseventy six percent of the chronic alcoholics failed to develop a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to DNCB skin test. The number of T cell were significantly decreased in thirty four percent of the chronic alcoholics. DNCB test was abnormal in seventy seven percent of the chronic alcoholics without liver injury, therfore suggesting that abnomal cellular immunity appears to exist in chronic alcoholics irrespective of the presence of liver disease.Leucocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT) was significantly demonstrated in fifty percent of the chronic alcoholics when both ethanol and liver specific antigen (LSA) were added to the medium. The patients with positive LMIT showed abnomral liver function and this finding was observed more frequently in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Therefore, this finding suggests that once liver damage occurs, ethanol itself might play a role as hapten and combine with LSA resulting in antigens an contribute to the development and perpetuation of the alcoholic liver damage. HBs antigen was positive in only 2.1 percent of 94 chronic alcoholics, whereas anti HBs was detected in 44% of 50 patients. This finding shows that there was no significant difference in the incidence between controls and chronic alcoholics suggesting that HBs antigen is not involved in the developmet of alcoholic iver injury at least as a primary factor.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 196-204
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Yoshitaka HISHITANI, Hideharu HARADA, Osamu SHIMIZU, Koichi KAKEHI, To ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 205-211
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Studies of cryoglobulinemia were performed in 140 patients with chronic liver diseases. Cryoglobulin was detected in 18% of cases with chronic hepatitis and in 40% of cases with liver cirrhosis. No correlation was found between the occurence of cryoglobulinemia and the sex of patients. Also there was no evidence suggesting a specific role of HB-Ag in the pathogenesis of cryoglobulinemia.
    The cryoglobulin detected was mixed type with a monocomponent (IgM monoclonal Kappa type + IgG in 23 cases, IgM conoclonal Kappa type + IgA + IgG in 2 cases) or mixed type with a polyclonal component (IgM + IgG in 8 cases, IgM + IgA + IgG in 4 cases). All monocomponents detected were IgM Kappa type.
    It was demonstrated that all cases with cryoglobulinemia showed RF activity. In these cases, moreover, RF activity was found even in the fraction of cryoglobulin separated, indicating close relationship between the occurence of cryoglobulinemia and the increment of RF activity.
    Decreased serum CH50 activity less than 30 units was found in 21% of cases of chronic hepatitis with cryoglobulinemia and in 60% of cases of liver cirrhosis with cryoglobulinemia, while it was found in 6% and 46% of cases of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis without cryoglobulinemia, respectively. In 6 cases among the cases with de- creased complement activity, very low serum CH 50 activity only less than 5 units was found. In these cases, dissociation in complement activity between plasma and serum was clearly demonstrated. All of them except 1 had cryoglobulinemia.
    Clinical studies showed that the frequency of involvement of tissues or organs other than liver was higher in the group with cryoglobulinemia than in the group without cryoglobulinemia.
    In these respects it was suggested that chronic liver disease with cryoglobulinemia might be an immunecomplex disease.
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  • Akira KIKUCHI, Akira KIHARA
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 212-222
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pancreatic endocrine function, especially from the view point of changes in plasma insulin (IRI) and glucagon (IRG) levels, was investigated in patients with liver diseases during oral glucose (GT) and intravenous arginine administration in accordance with the glucose tolerance.
    The results obtained are as follows:
    1) Significantly higher responses to the increase in plasma IRI following glucose administration were commonly observed in groups of normal, borderline and/or diabetic conditions as compared with that of healthy control, showing lowest values in the diabetic group at the initial response after glucose loading as compared with those of the other groups.
    Plasma IRG levels sowed a significantly higher increases in all groups of liver diseases as compared with that of healthy control, and the highest values of IRG during oral glucose administration was found in the group with diabetic conditions.
    The molar ratio between insulin (I) and glucagon (G) in the diseased group of normal GT condition showed the same pattern as that in healthy control. However, different patterns of I/G molar ratio in both groups of borderline and/or diabetic GT conditions were observed as compared with that of healthy control.
    2) Significantly higher responses to the increase in IRI following arginine administration were commonly observed in all groups of liver diseases as compared with that of healthy control, showing the highest response in group of normal GT conditions and higher responses in the group of borderline GT condition as compared with that in group of diabetic GT condition.
    Plasma IRG levels were significantly higher in all groups of liver diseases as compared with that of healthy control. IRG levels were the highest in the group of diabetics and higher in the group of borderline GT conditions as compared with that in group of normal GT condition.
    The molar ratio showed different patterns in all groups of liver diseases as compared with that of healthy control, showing the lowest in group of diabetics and lower in group of borderline GT condition as compared with that in the group of normal GT condition.
    From the results thus obtained, it was conjectured that the glucose intolerance conditions which were found in patients with liver diseases might closely be related with the changes in increases in plasma IRI and IRG levels and with the abnormalmolar ratios of I/G.
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  • Osamu KITAMURA, Takashi HIDAKA, Tsukasa ASHIHARA, Osamu TAKEOKA, Keizo ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 223-230
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using Feulgen-DNA cytofluorometry, we investigated quantitatively nuclear DNA content of human liver cells and rat liver cells in their aging processes, and compared the age-related changes in ploidy classes of liver cells between human and rats.
    Autopsy or biopsy specimens obtained from 20 patients (age ranging from 7 to 104 years old) with normal liver histology and function tests, were treated to make smear preparations of the single cells. Each nuclear DNA content of liver cells was determined by the Feulgen-DNA cytofluorometry using an automatic digital cytofluorometer (Nikon SPM-RFl). The ploidy classes of the liver cells were analyzed, with regard to binuclearity, on the computer-drawn graphs of the nuclear DNA content distribution. Rat liver cells (Donryu strain, age ranging from 21 to 730 days of life) were also similarly treated and analyzed.
    The cytofluorometric measurements on human liver cells revealed that about 90% of the cells are mononuclear diploid (MD) in adults of up to approximately 50 years of age and that, with further advancement of the age, the fraction of this ploidy class drops linearly with age, allowing the percentage of higher ploidy cells such as binuclear diploid (BD) and mononuclear tetraploid (MT) cells to increase steadily. At 104 years of age nearly 50% of the total liver cells are higher ploidy cells. On the other hand, in rat liver cells, 80% of the cells were MD at 3 weeks of life, but at 5 weeks the fraction of this ploidy class decreases rapidly while the fraction of BD cells increases reaching to nearly 40%. With advancement of animal age thereafter, the fraction of BD cells falls and MT cells becomes the majority, the percentage of which being 70% in adult rats with ages over 12 months.
    These results confirm the previous finding that polyploidization progresses steadily during the process of aging in both human and rats. As to the human liver cells, detailed standard curves were obtained in which age-related changes of the fraction of various ploidy classes were shown. The present study has also demonstrated that there are significant differences in the extent and the timing of polyploidization of liver cells between human and rats.
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  • Shunichi KOGA, Kyosuke YAMAMOTO, Hiroshi IBAYASHI
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 231-238
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To elucidate the clinical significance of quantitative determination of lipoprotein X (LP-X), LP-X concentration was determined in 44 patients with positive LP-X test. The LP-X concentrations in patients with extrahepatic biliary obstruction were usually higher than those in cases with intrahpatic cholestasis. All cases which showed LP-X levels higher than 400mg/dl had extrahpatic biliary obstruction. Correlation between the LP-X levels and cholesterol or alkaline phosphatase activities was highly significant in patients with extrahepatic biliary obstruction. In cases with intrahepatic cholestasis the LP-X levels were correlated well with alkaline phosphatase activities but lesser in depress with cholesterol concentrations. Of 44 LP-X positive cases, 5 cases were anicteric (bilirubin<2.0mg/dl), 6 cases were hypocholesterolemic (cholesterol<150mg/ml) and a case revealed normal alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP<100mU/ml). The quantitative analysis of LP-X concentration is a relatively simple procedure and revealed more significance for for the differential diagnosis of jaundiced patients than conventional biochemical analyses did.
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  • Masataka IWASAKI, Izumi MARUYAMA, Naoki IKEZIRI, Masahide ABE, Toyoaki ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 239-248
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Incidence of endotoxemia was studied by Limulus Lysate Test in various liver diseases. Endotoxemia was found in 66.7% of advanced liver diseases such as fulminant hepatitis, decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatoma, and more often seen in cases of liver cirrhosis and hepatoma with ascites or esophageal varices than in cases without those complications.
    Endotoxin was more frequently detected in ascites fluid than in the serum.
    Incidence of endotoxemia and changes of liver scintigram (198Au-colloid) seemed to be not well correlated. In some cases treated with Lactulose, endotoxin disappared from the serum.
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  • Jiro YONEI
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 249-258
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Properties of chemically synthesized bilirubin sulfate isomers were examined by thin layer chromatography and photochemical methods. Further more, their excretion rates into the bile after intravenous loading to Wistar strain rat and heterozygous Gunn rat were studied. The bilirubin sulfate isomers were synthesized chemically by the method of Watson from crystallized bilirubin, which were separated into three fractions by McDonagh's thin layer chromatography. The following results were obtained:
    1) Absorption maxima of bilirubin-IIIα sulfate, -IXα sulfate, -XIIIα sulfate in methanol solution were determind to be 443 mμ., 445 mμ and 448 mμ., respectively. Absorption maxima of their diazotized sulfanylate solution pH 5.4 were 555 mμ, 550 mμ. and 545 mμ, respectively which moved to 576 mμ, 574 mμ and 572 mμ, respectively, after acidification with hydrochloric acid to pH 1.0.
    2) The Rfs of bilirubin-IIIα sulfate, -IXα sulfate and -XIIIα sulfate on the thin layer chromatography were 0.15, 0.19 and 0.22 respecitvely.
    3) The Rfs of bilirubin extracted from bile which excreted in the first two hours after intravenous injection of bilirubin sulfate isomers were consistent with those of chemically synthesized bilirubin sulfate isomers.
    4) The excretion ratio up to eight hours following the loading of bilirubin sulfate isomers in Gunn rat were 65.4+15.4% of bilirubin-IIIα sulfate, 57.4+7.0% of -IXα sulfate and 70.9+11.6% of -XIIIα sulfate, respectivey. In the Wistar strain rat they were 70.4+4.8%, 62.5+4.5% and 77.7+12.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the excretion ratios of the isomers between the Gunn rat and Wistar atrin rat. These results suggest that each of bilirubin sulfate isomer is easily excreted in the bile without modification.
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  • Toshinari KIMURA, Hideyuki WAKASUGI, Akihiro FUNAKOSHI, Masahiro MATSU ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 259-265
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An oral exocrine pancreatic function test (PFD test) using N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-P-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) is influenced by the intestinal absorption of the P-aminobenzoic (PABA) and the renal function.
    In this study, the urinary excretion rate of PABA was examined by the administration of 170 mg PABA (PABA test) and then a diagnostic evaluation index was created by subtracting the PFD value from the PABA value. The PABA minus the PFD value was used to determine the percentage of PABA not hydrolized by pancreatic chymotrypsin in the small intestine. This index was used in studying patients with pancreatic diseases by comparing the results of the PS test with thsoe of the PFD test.
    A significant correlation was obtained between the PABA minus the PFD value and maximum bicarbonate concentration (P<0.001) and also amylase output (P<0.05) in the PS test. These correlation were improved comparing with those of PFD values.
    The PABA minus the PFD value was significantly increased in chronic pancreatitis with calcification (P<0.001) and without calcification (P<0.05), while the PFD value did not show significnat decrease in chronic pancreatitis without calcification. Futhermore, the PABA minus the PFD value revealed normal in patients with false positive PFD test.
    These results indicate that this modified method can present a more accurate exocrine pancreatic function than the PFD test.
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  • Etsuko ONO, [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese] ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 266-270
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Itsuo AMIOKA, Terukatsu ARIMA, Takehiko TSUNASHIMA, Rokuro MATSUMOTO, ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 271-278
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 74 year-old patient with macroamylasemia is reported. His urinary amylase level was normal whereas serum amylase level was persistently and slightly elevated, and the ratio of the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was decreased to 0.81%.
    On the serum amylase isozyme pattern, a broad band migrating from the position where normal pancreatic amylase was stained to the anode was disclosed.
    On Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, an abnormal amylase peak corresponding to 7S as well as an additional abnormal broad amylase activity from 7S to the fraction where normal amylase is usually eluted, were detected.
    A normal peak of amylase activity was eluted from a Bio-Gel A-0.5m column, suggesting dissociation of amylase protein from binding substances in the serum.
    The amylase fraction and the protein fraction containing the binding substances which were dissociated each other by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration at pH 3.4 were combined in vitro and resulted in the regeneration of the macroamylase. Furthermore a mixture of the dissociated protein fraction and normal pancreatic or salivary amylase was disclosed to produce macroamylase.
    No binding between amylase and immunoglobulins, albumin or α1-antitrypsin was suggested by amylase staining after immunoelectrophoresis and immunoprecipitations by mono-specific anti-sera.
    Amylase and binding substances in the present case were completely dissociated by 5M Urea treatment or Bio-Gel A-0.5 m gel filtration at pH 8.0, but not by Triton X-100 treatment, concluding that they were dound each other by weak hydrogen bonds.
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  • Akitoshi KOLA, Masahisa TABATA, Hideki KIDO, Satoru TODO, Shingo NAGAM ...
    1979 Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 279-284
    Published: February 05, 1979
    Released: December 26, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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