1) An isotonic saline solution containing 154mEq/l sodium, and 154mEq/l chloride was instilled into the pylorus- and cardia-ligated stomachs of intact and common-bile-duct-ligated rats for 1-hour period. 8ml of the test solution were instilled into the stomach, and immediately after the instillation, 3ml of the fluid were aspirated from the stomach (sample 1). After lapse of 1-hour test period, the fluid was gently aspirated until the stomach was collapsed (sample 2). Sample 1 and sample 2 were served for quantitative analysis of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chloride ions concentration. Under restraint, the test for 1-hour period was serially repeated 5 times in the each rat. Cimetidine 25mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered in 3 groups (intact and icteric) of rats, in which the same instillation experiment as above was done. 2) Jaundice had no influence on net gain and loss of electrolytes in saline solution instilled into the stomach of rats. 3) The rate of suppressing gastric acid output with administration of Cimetidine 25mg/kg was between 39.9% and 65.3%. 4) Irrespective of presence or absence of jaundice and of administration or none of cimetidine, it was found in all but one test periods that the sum of net gain of cations (H+, Na+, K+) was almost equivalent to net gain of anion (Cl-). 5) On the basis of Hollander's two component hypothesis, an autoregulation-system, which kept the net ion output"cations minus anion"in the parietal component at an almost equivalent level to the net ion output"anions minus cations"in the nonparietal component, was supposed to be acting in the rat stomach under restraint.
Using the hydrogen clearance technique, this study is desigend to measure chronically the gastric submucosal blood flow of rats, and to consider the effects of autonomic nerve and catecholamines on the gastric blood flow in rats subjected to stress. In the control group, the gastric blood flow showed a 50% decrease after subjection to stress. But in the surgical and medical vagotomized group, and in the epinephrine 0.25μg/kg/min infused group, the gastric blood flow showed a slight decrease after stress application. In the surgical sympathectomized group and adrenalectomized group, the gastric blood flow showed a significant reduction. However, the significant reduction of blood flow in the surgical sympathectomized and adrenalectomized groups after stress loading was inhibited by epinephrine infusion. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the blood flow and ulcer index. The results of the present study show that the sympathoadrenal system enhances release of epinephrine, which has a protective effect on the development of stress ulcer by inhibiting the reduction of the gastric blood flow after stress application.
The pathophysiologic aspects of gut hormones, as related to diarrhea induced by cholera toxin were investigated. After cholera toxin had been given by gavage, changes of intestinal fluid retention, hematocrit, plasma cyclic nucleotides and of plasma gut hormone levels were measured in order to assess the effects of the cholera toxin. Radioimmunoassay methods were used. The intestinal fluid retention was remarkable and concomitant with increasing hematocrit values. The levels of plasma c-AMP increased significantly, yet there were no changes in plasma c-GMP. The levels of plasma gastrin increased slightly and levels of substance P and gut GLI (enteroglucagon) increased significantly, but levels of plasma secretin, glucagon immunoreactivity (GI) and contrary to expectation, VIP were unchanged. These results suggest that plasma gut GLI increases following diarrhea, that intestinal substance P plays an important role in the mechanism of cholera plus diarrhea, and that c-AMP levels have little influence on this effect.
Plasma amino acids and plasma α-amino-n-butyric acid (AANB) levels and the ratios of AANB to leucine were measured in 24 cases of alcoholic liver diseases and 14 cases of non-alcoholic liver diseases. And microheterogeneity of plasma transferrin was also determined. The pattern of plasma amino acids in alcoholic liver diseases was not significant different from that of non-alcoholic liver diseases. No significant change of the patterns of plasma amino acids was observed in alcoholic liver diseases following abstinence. Plasma AANB levels and AANB to leucine ratios tended to be decreased following abstinence in many cases of alcoholic liver diseases. However, incidences of the cases showing abnormality in plasma AANB and AANB to leucine ratio were almost same in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. Incidence of microheterogeneity of plasma transferrin was higher in alcoholic liver diseases than non-alcoholic liver diseases. For the biochemical markers of heavy drinkers, determination of microheterogeneity of transferrin was more usefull than that of AANB to leucine ratios.
A new form of glutathione S-transferase has been purified to homogenity from rat liver cytosol. Specific activity of this enzyme to the substrates such as 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene and bromosulfophthalein were different from that of transferase AA, A, B, C, E and ligandin previously reported. SDS-gel electrophoresis of this purified sample showed a single band corresponding to a molecular weight of 24, 300. From immunohistochemical sutdy, it was suggested that the enzyme may be induced in the hepatocytes during hepatocarcinogenesis.
In vivo hepatic tissue oxygen tension (hepatic tissue PO2) and regional hepatic blood volume were investigated by thin needle oxygen electrode and organ-reflectance spectrophotometry in chronically ethanol treated and pair-fed control rats. The hepatic tissue PO2 in chronically ethanol treated rats (7.1± 2.9mmHg) was significantly lower than that in control rats (16.6±8.8mmHg). In chronically ethanol treated rats, the regional hepatic blood volume was signifcantly lower as compared with that in control rats. After acute oral ethanol administration (1g/kg BW), the hepatic tissue PO2 in control rats increased about twofolds over basal level, while in chronically ethanol treated rats, the hepatic tissue PO2 decreased transiently, followed by a gradual increase. The increase of regional hepatic blood volume in chronically ethanol treated rats (4.9%) was lower than that in control rats (8.4%). It is concluded that in rats the liver was hypoxic even in the stage of fatty liver, probably due to the decreased hepatic blood supply.
A test meal combined PFD (TM-PFD) using Sustagen was evaluated to prove the superiority in detecting pancreatic exocrine dysfunction to the conventional PFD, and experimental studies were underwent on pancreatic juice of rats with partial pancreatic resection. 1) In 70% pancreatectomized rats, there was no difference of PABA measurement from sham treated rats by conventional PFD, while significant lowering of PABA values were obtained by TM-PFD. 2) In 70% pancreatectomized rats, studies on pancreatic juice revealed significant lowering of exocrine pancreatic function, which suggested that TM-PFD had a higher degree of correlation to exocrine pancreatic function than conventional PFD. 3) The results of conventional PFD and TM-PFD were well correlated with chymotrypsin output. 4) Sustagen ingestion combined with conventional PFD showed 10% increase of exocrine pancreatic secretion. This could be the evidence that sustagen ingestion would be the secretional stimulant to the pancreas.
In order to compare radiological finding of the dilated branches on post-mortem pancreatogram with the histological findings, of 20 necropsy materials were studied (30 dilated branches). In the simple dilatation group (5 branches), goblet cell hyperplasia, disruption and disappearance of elastic fibers were seen in the dilated ducts. Acinar cell atrophy and disappearance, fibrosis and ductular aggregation were mild in drainage lobules. This group may be associated with several diseases, including chronic pancreatitis. In the irregular dilatation group (14 branches), inflammatory cell infiltration, periductal fibrosis and fat replacement were seen in addition to the above histological findings. These findings were moderate to severe in drainage lobules. This group is compatible with chronic pancreatitis. In the cystic dilated group (11 branches), plug like substances were seen in addition to the above findings. This group is also related to chronic pancreatitis. It is concluded that irregular dilatation and cystic dilatation of branches would be significant in ERCP diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.
Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) in serum from patients with pancreatic diseases was measured by using the recently developed method of radioimmunoassay and compared these results with serum amylase ativity in the same sample. Serum PSTI concentration in 25 healthy subjects was 10.7±2.7ng/ml (mean±SD). All the patients with acute pancreatitis had an elevated serum PSTI concentration, which remained at the elevated level for several days even after serum amylase activity has returned to normal range. On the other hand, elevated serum PSTI concentration decreased to the normal range earlier than serum amylase activity in patients who showed an elevation of serum amylase activity after secretin stimulation. However, serum PSTI concentration in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis was not different from that of normal persons. These results suggest that serum PSTI concentration correlates with the severity of acute pancreatitis, but not with that of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
Fifty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis or suspected chronic pancrratitis were investigated by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and the caerulein secretin test in order to explore the relationship between exocrine function and ductal morphology. According to pancreatogram the patients were divided into three groups, namely group A (n=15) with moderate or severe irregular dilatation of the main duct, group B (n=12) with irregular dilatation located in the side branches, and group C with normal pancreatogram. The sensitivity for group A or B, the specificity for group C and the overall efficiency of secretory parameters were calculated. The highest efficiency (83%) was obtained from bicarbonate output or volume. The efficiency of amylase, lipase, trypsin or chymotrypsin was 70-75%. The bicarbonate output was used to categorize each patient in that pancreatogram group whose mean bicarbonate output was the closest. The correct allocation for group A was 88%, for group C was 80%, but for group B was only 29%, and the total correct allocation was 68%.