The riboflavin deficient rats were investigated to elucidate the role of lipid peroxide in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer. Other groups of rats were fed on riboflavin suppliemented diet or riboflavin-tetrabutylate supplemented diet to serve as the control. In riboflavin deficient rats gastric mucosal lipid peroxide measured as thiobarbitric acid reactive substances was significantly increased as well as gastric lesions after the water immersion-restraint stress for 4 hours in comparison with riboflavin-supplemented rats. On the other hand, decrease of gastric mucosal lipid peroxide and prevention of gastric lesions were observed after the stress in riboflavin-tetrabutylate supplemented rats. These results suggested that antioxidant effects of riboflavin on the lipid peroxidation may play a role in prevention of gastric lesions induced by stress.
Changes in free cytosolic Ca# concentration of isolated guinea-pig parietal cells following histamine stimulation were measured using fura-2/AM or quine-2/AM as an intracellular Ca# probe by double wave length excitation method in order to investigate whether Ca# participates in histamine-stimulated acid secretion in which cyclic AMP is commonly accepted as second messenger or mot. Cytosolic Ca# concentration was increased by histamine in dose dependent manner from 179.75±9.67 nM to 332.78±35.84 nM at the peak point in case of using fura-2/AM. In case of using quin-2/AM, however, cytosolic Ca# concentration showed no change. It is concluded that fura-2/AM seems to be more useful than quin-2/AM as an intracellular Ca# probe, and that cytosolic Ca# may be concerned with histamine-dependent activation of acid secretion.
Two thousand and seven hundred cases of colorectal carcinoma, diagnosed in 10 years from 1974 to 1983, were accumulated from 72 hospitals in Aomori prefecture. Their records were analyzed to determine the annual incidence and their prognosis in the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. The incidences of colonic and rectal cancer were 5.1 and 6.1 per 100, 000 in 1974 and have increased to 14.5 and 11.6 in 1983, respectively. As for the crude death rates, they were 5.1 and 4.9 per 100, 000 in 1974, and 7.9 and 7.2 in 1983 respectively. The increase of incidence exceeded that of the crude death rate during the same period. Males were dominant in rectal cancer, but there was no sex difference in the colonic cancer. The increase of incidence was greatest in people over 40 years of age, and prominent in the colon, particularly in the sigmoid colon rather than the rectum.
Polyamine synthetase ornithine decarboxylase known to involve in tumor promotion was examined in the normal-appearing mucosas of surgically resected large bowel specimens from 67 patients with large bowel cancer and from 6 control patients with cancer in the other organs. The levels of the enzyme activity of multiple tumor cases with carcinoma(s) and adenoma(s) were significantly higher than those of solitary tumor cases with carcinoma alone, and the both cases showed significantly increased enzyme activity compared with the control cases. This significance was demonstrated more distinctly in the left-sided large bowel cancer cases. It appeared to the larger the number of tumors the greater the enzyme activity. The results suggest that the large bowel developing carcinoma, particularly multiple tumors, has been exposed to the large amount of tumor promoting substances or has been susceptible to such substances. Thus, the mucosal ornithine decarboxylase may be a good biological marker to detect the individuals at high risk for large bowel cancer. Pre-operative treatment with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin resulted in a marked reduction of the enzyme activity. It suggests that this agent might have an anti-promoting effect in the large bowel in man as demonstrated in animal experiment.
Twenty six cases of familial adenomatosis coli (FAC) in 15 family trees were studied. At the time of operation number of polyps and the density of microadenomas destributed in the background mucosa were calculated in each patient in every family tree. Preoperative magnifying dye endoscopy revealed the single gland or oligoglandular adenomas. Analyses were made on accompanying symptoms (such as occult osteoma, polyps in upper gastrointestinal tract, retinal pigmentation, thyroid tumor and desmoid tumor). Clinical importance of these symptoms was discussed. Especially retinal pigmentation appeared in 86.4% of patients and 50% in possible carriers of the second generation. Earliest recognition of retinal pigmentation in this series was in a female infant 1 year and 2 months of age. Retinal pigmentations may be a good possible marker for FAC.
We have already reported that DTH has been observed in the skin reaction for mucous polysaccharides of human fetal colon (PS antigen) in patients with ulcerative colitis. The same DTH was also observed in guinea pigs immunized with PS antigen. In this papers we reported the ability of cell-mediated immune production also in systemic immunization of guinea pigs with the same antigen. We immunized guinea pigs with PS antigen in FCA at the foot pads of guinea pigs and injected liquid paraffins into their peritoneal cavities, and then gathered their peritoneal exsudated cells. Then we injected these cells into the heart spaces of another guinea pigs not-immunized with PS antigen. After a given peirod of time, we challenged in each animal with the skin reactions with use of PS antigen and DTH was observed. With this experiment, we showed that DTH in these guinea pigs immunized with PS antigen was cell-mediated and their peritoneal exsudated cells were commited monocytes in systemic immunity with mucus of colonic goblet cells. These results show that DTH in patients with ulcerative colitis is probably cell-mediated.
In order to elucidate the difference of non-specific immune response among the acute viral hepatitis type A (AHA), type B (AHB) and sporadic type NANB (AHNANB), the serum 2-5 oligoadenylate synthetase (2-5AS) activity and β2-microgrobulin (BMG) were measured and the BMG expression in the hepatocyte was also examined. Serum 2-5AS activity and BMG level were high in the acute phase of AHA and AHB, and they returned to normal in the convalescent phase. In the acute phase of AHA, the levels of them were higher than those of AHB. These findings suggest that the interferon (IFN) system is involved in the acute phase of illness and it's action was more rapid and sharp in AHA than that in AHB. The light and electron microscopic examinations revealed that BMG is produced and expressed on the hepatocyte membrane in the acute phase of illness and disappeared by the convalescent phase. In the acute phase of AHA, the BMG expression was nore intensive than that of AHB. Such expression seeems to be well reflected on the serum BMG level. On the other hand, in the AHNANB the levels of serum 2-5AS activity and BMG were lower compared with those of AHA or AHB, suggesting the intensity of immune response in AHNANB is weaker than those in AHA or AHB.
The sinusoidal endothelial fenestration (SEF) of human liver tissues obtained by blind biopsy was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis of the diameter, number and porosity of SEF was performed and compared with that of rat liver. The diameter of SEF in zone 1 in human liver was significantly (p<0.001) larger than that in zone 3. The number of SEF in zone 3 was significantly (p<0.01) more than that in zone 1. The porosity of SEF in zone 3 was significantly (p<0.01) larger than that in zone 1. These results in human liver tissues obtained by blind biopsy might be important to elucidate the relationship between various liver diseases and the changes of SEF.
The etiology of hyper-cholinesterasemia was investigated in 522 subjects who showed high serum cholinesterase activity in the midical determination. The analysis of biochemical and physical studies demonstrated the large contribution of the idiopathic factor except overnutrition, obesity, or fatty liver upon the genesis of hyper-cholinesterasemia, especially in the subjects with extremely high level of serum cholinesterase activity (N=81, 16%). Moreover, in these subjects, the cholinesterase isozyme analysis revealed the high incidence of the extraband which was perviously reported in the familial hyper-choliesterasemia by our laboratory. These results indicate 1) the idiopathic factors could contribute on the genesis of hyper-cholinesterasemia at not a few extent, and 2) the detection of the extraband in the cholineaserase isozyme analysis could be useful in the diagnosis of these type of hyper-cholinesterasemia.
The effect of UDCA treatment on NT was studied. NT of bile from patients with cholesterol gallstones without a preoperative UDCA treatment (n=11) was 1.9±1.8 days, whereas that from those with UDCA treatment (300mg/day, >3 months) (n=10) was 16.8±6.7 days. In addition, a rapid growth of cholesterol crystals was observed dominantly in former cases as compared with in latter cases. There was, however, no statistical significance in cholesterol saturation indecis between those two groups. Accordingly, we deduce that the mechanism (s) of the effect of UDCA on NT is mediated by changes of biliary contents except for lipids, i.e. proteins to stabilize the physicochemical circumstances in bile.