Transport of amino acids; glycine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-proline, L-lysine and dipeptides; gly-gly, gly-L-pro, gly-L-leu, L-leu-gly was investigated by measuring the short-circuit current in control rats and the rats 3 days after intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CPM) 300mg/kg. For determining active transport using the short-circuit current method in injured intestinal epithelia the short-circuit current measured should be corrected for the decrease in the mucosal resistance of CPM group. Jmax values for transport of glycine and L-alanine in ileum are significantly decreased in CPM group than in control group. Contrariwise, there are no differences in Jmax values for peptides transport in ileum between two groups. The results indicate that the glycine transport carrier is more sensitive to CPM injury than the peptide transport carrier for glycine-containing dipeptide, suggesting the clinical usefullness of the peptide nutrition during chemotherapy.
Serum and ascitic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities in rat acute pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate (TCA) were investigated with special reference to their heat stabilities and were compared to those in serum of carrageenan induced granuloma in rats. PLA2 activity was measured by previously reported radiochemical method and was separated into two forms, heat stable and labile PLA2, based on the stability to preincubation at 55°C for 5 minutes. While a heat stable PLA2 predominantly increased in ascitic fluid, the elevations of both heat stable and labile PLA2 activities in serum were observed in TCA induced pancreatitis. On the other hand, serum PLA2, which was mainly composed of heat labile form, elevated with the increase of leukocyte count in carrageenan induced granuloma rats. These facts suggested that serum PLA2 activity might increase in acute inflammatory changes other than in pancretic diseases. And it is assumed that PLA2 derived from extrapancreatic origins as well as pancreatic secretory PLA2 may also contribute to high PLA2 level in acute pancreatitis, because pancreatic secretory PLA2 was generally accepted to be heat stable.
We measured serum level of α2-macroglobulin-trypsin complex (α2M-T complex) using a colorimetric assay with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, D-γ-tert-butyloxy-Gly-Arg-3-carboxy-4-hydroxyanilide dihydrochloride. Serum level of α2M-T complex was greater in acute pancreatitis patients than in chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer patients. In severe acute pancreatitis patients, both mean level and frequency of abnormal value of serum α2M-T complex were significantly greater than in mild acute pancreatitis patients (13.1±12.9vs 2.9±3.5U/L, p<0.01; 100vs 41%, p<0.01). In conclusion, the determination of serum level of α2M-T complex can be useful for the diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis.
The application of ESWL for pancreatic duct stones was studied clinically, and the safety of this technique was also investigated experimentally. In 12 patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis and having calcified stones in the main pancreatic duct, ESWL was performed. None of the patient had received endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy before ESWL. Stone disintegration was obtained in all cases, and the main pancreatic duct stones completely disappeared in 9 of 12 cases. As a result, not only exacerbation of pancreatitis was removed, but also the preservation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions was suggested. With regard to complications, no abnormalities were observed experimentally in the pancreatic parenchyma of treated dogs, and similarly no acute symptoms were recognized in the patients with pancreatic duct stones. ESWL for pancreatic duct stones is low in stress for the patient, and is effective for large stones. We therefore conclude that ESWL might be an extremely useful, new non-surgical treatment approach to control of pancreatic duct stones.