Patients who were diagnosed to have duodenal ulcer (DU) or duodenal ulcer scar (DUS) by gastric mass screening with X-Ray examination from April 1970 to Dec. 1983 were followed up to Dec. 1983 by means of record linkage to the Osaka Cancer Registry, and incident patients of gastric cancer (GC) among the study subjects during the follow-up period were investigated almost completely. Standardized incidence rates (SIR) of GC for the groups categorized by diagnosis at the initial screening, i.e., DU or DUS group and normal group, were calculated by comparing the number of GC among the study groups with the expected number of GC. This expected number was obtained by multiplying the person-year of the study subjects with GC incidence rates for the whole population of Osaka prefecture according to sex and age group. SIR were calculated by sub-groups, i.e., male and female groups, under 5 year follow-up (from the initial screening to GC diagnosis) and 5 year follow-up or over groups, and direct X-Ray examination at the detection center and indirect X-Ray examination in the screening bus groups. The results were as follows. The SIR were 0.41 for the DU or DUS group and 0.74 for the normal group. The risk for the DU or DUS group was lower than that for the normal group (R.R.=0.55, χ2=3.56, 0.1>p>0.05). In all subgroups, the risk of GC for each DU or DUS group was lower than thatfor the normal group. In conclusion, from the epidemiological point of view this study suggested evidence that patients who had a history of DU had a lower risk of sufferig from GC.
Recently, intragastroduodenal acidity has been shown to play an important role in interdigestive gastrointestinal motility. In this study, gastrointestinal motility and intragastric pH changes were monitored simultaneously indogs, to characterize 1) the relationship between intragastric pH changes and IMC, and 2) the effects of intragastric acidity on motilin-induced phase III contractions in the gastric antrum by using secretagogues and an H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine). As a result, intragastric pH showed periodic changes with gastric IMC in conscious dogs. Furthermore, motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions were inhibited by gastric acidification. But inhibition of gastric acid secretion by cimetidine normalized both the motor index and migration of the contractions. In conclusion, gastric acid secretion may influence the sensitivity to motilin of the stomach, and play an important role in the regulation of interdigestive gastric motility.
The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was studied immunohistochemically in 92 colorectal carcinomas: 21 early and 71 advanced. EGFR immunoreactivity was detected in 15 cases (16.3%) of colorectal carcinomas. All EGFR-positive cases was advanced carcinomas, while no EGFR immunoreactivity was found in early carcinomas. EGFR-positive cases were macroscopically 3•4 type and more than 2cm in diameter. No significant correlation of EGFR expression with tumor location, stage, lymph node metastasis, degree of differentiation, and prognosis was found. All EGFR-positive cases was synchronous positive for the expression of EGF. These results suggest that EGFR may play an important role in tumor progression in cooperation with EGF.
We have investigated the longitudinal distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes in the trisected small intestine mucosa of rats. Only GST subunits 1 and 7 were detected by Western blot analysis of the intestinal cytosol using antiserum for GST1-1, 1-2, 3-4 and 7-7. Cytosolic GST1-1, 3-4 and 7-7 were assayed by the quantitative ELISA. There was a marked decline of the concentration of GST1-1 from proximal (35.17nmol/g tissue) to distal intestine (1.67nmol/g tissue). GST3-4 was hardly detected in the intestinal mucosa. Among the GSTs, GST7-7 existed in the highest concentration in any segment of intestine, i.e. 58.76nmol/g tissue (61% of GSTs) in the proximal intestine and 32.38nmol/g tissue (93% of GSTs) in the distal intestine.
We examined HLA-DR antigen expression on endoscopicly biopsied colonic epitheliums of ulcerative colitis (UC), infectious colitis and ischemic colitis. Since this monoclonal antibody (LN-3 ICN Immunobiologicals, USA) is available for usual formalin fixated materials, if the fixation is limtted within 36 hours. 886 samples from 55 UC cases, 91 samples from 19 infectious colitis cases, 63 samples from 15 ischemic colitis cases and 63 samples from normal cases were enough statistically, compared to DR antigen expression. UC expressed clearly stastistical high positive DR staining rate than infections colitis and ishemic colitis. Further, samples from UC and infectious colitis were compared in the histopathologically each with the same grade of inflamation, UC expressed higher positive rates of DR antigen than infectious colitis, and both UC and infectious colitis showed increased positive rates of DR antigen with advance of histopathological grades of inflamation.
The hepatic cellular damage induced by liver ischemia was investigated in rats with obstructive jaundice. Hepatic tissue blood flow in obstructive jaundice was decreased in the relation to the duration of jaundice. The value of lipid peroxide and cathepsin D activity of the hepatic tissue increased in the obstructive jaundice. Therefore, it was suggested that cell membrane and lysosomal membrane injury were induced in obstructive jaundice. The value of lipid peroxide of hepatic tissue in obstructive jaundice was more increased after partial liver ischemia. The survival rate following hepatic ischemia in jaundiced rats was remarkably lower than that of normal rats, and also it related to the duration of jaundice. In addition, histological changes of the liver after partial ischemia are severe in obstructive jaundiced liver. These data suggest that more remarkable hepatic cellular damage than in normal liver may be induced by liver ischemia in obstructive jaundice.
We have investigated the effect of CoQ10 to lipidperoxide (LPO) and Cu, Zn-SOD in the regenerating liver in rats. Cu, Zn-SOD was investigated in biochemical activity, and immunohistochemical localization. In normal control liver, Cu, Zn-SOD was diffusely stained throughout the hepatic lobules, with predominance in the centrilobular area and with vicinity of thick portal vein. In early stage of regenerating liver. LPO was increased and Cu, Zu-SOD was decreased. Destruction of the membrane of hepatocyte was confirmed by electron microscopy in the early stage of regenerating liver, Cu, Zn-SOD might be speculated to leak out into extra cellular spaces. CoQ10 suppressed the mentioned phenomenon in regenating liver.
Sixty percent hepatectomy under two times of the Pringle maneuver (temporal occlusion of the hepatic inflow of the hepatic artery and portal vein) for 25min was carried out on rats with obstructive jaundice. Hepatic energy charge which was markedly decreased during the Pringle maneuver did not recover 3hrs after release of the maneuver. In addition, systemic endotoxemia associated with increased level of malondialdehyde and decreased levels of total glutathione and α-tocopherol in the liver was demonstrated. These changes were more dominant in rats with obstructive jaundice for 3 weeks than those for 1 week. It can be said that deteriorated hepatic energy charge after release of the Pringle maneuver may partly be caused by the production of oxygen free radicals which may be enhanced by endotoxemia in resection of the jaundiced liver. In contrast, after release of the Pringle maneuver, deterioration of hepatic energy charge due to oxidative attack was not found in jaundiced rats without hepatic resection.
Fourty cases of carcinomas in the pancreatoduodenal region (carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater: 11 cases, carcinoma of the pancreas head (CPH): 12 cases, carcinoma of the inferior common bile duct (CIBD):17 cases) and its non-malignant counterparts were examined immunohistochemically, using monoclonal antibodies against four Lewis (Le) blood group-related antigens and sialyl Tn antigen. TKH-2 (anti-sialyl Tn) reactivity, which is almost negative in non-malignat counterparts except for goblet cells in the duodenum, is highly positive in carcinomas, therefore, sialyl Tn antigen can be an excellent tumor marker in this region. Lex and sialyl Lex-i antigens have been regarded as pancreatic cancer-associated antigens, however, this study suggests that Lex and sialyl Lex-i are more useful markers for CIBD than CPH. Above findings imply that altered regulation of glycosyltransferase activity is associated in malignant state of the pancreas and inferior common bile duct.