A new human gastric cancer cell line (MKK-1), derived from Borrmann type 3 tumor of the stomach, was established. It was obtained from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The cell line grew in vitro, forming a sheet of monolayered cells and attaching firmly to the inner surface of culture vessels; it continued to grow for more than 1 year and 4 months. Its doubling time was 12.6 hours, with a chromosomal mode of 69. The cells could grow in nude mice; histological findings of the tumors developed in the mice showed a pattern similar to those in the primary tumor, i.e., poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. With regards to tumor-related antigens, production of the CA19-9 was observed as time-dependent increase and was detectted at a level of 4U/ml in the culture supernatant on passage day 7, showing high values compared with the control. Immunostaining was positive for both the anti CEA antibody and the anti CA19-9 antibody. In sera examined in week 4 after subcutaneos transplantation of MKK-1 to the nude mice, CEA and CA19-9 levels were high, at 8.93ng/ml and 44U/ml, respectively. There was a positive correlation between increase in a tumor weight and the production of tumor-related antigens.
20g lactose load test, BHT and LTT done simultaneously were examined in 32 Crohn's disease patients and 51 healthy volunteers. Hypolactasia frequency were examined. A rise in hydrogen concentration >20 parts per million (ppm) above the base line during breath hydrogen test and maximum blood sugar rise during lactose tolerance test were considered to indicated Hypolactasia. High rates, 50% by BHT and 72.5% by LTT, of primary adult hypolactasia were found in healthy volunteers as previously reported. Higher rates, 83.3% by BHT and by LTT (p<0.05), were observed in Crohn's disease patients. There were higher rates in small intestine type Crohn's disease (91.6% by BHT, 92.3% by LTT) compare with healthy volunteers but no difference were found with large intestine type Crohn's disease.
The distribution of proliferating cells was studied in colorectal carcinoma by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody-DNA polymerase α and Ki-67. Colorectal carcinoma was classified into two types by growth mode: (1) intramucosal polypoid growth carcinoma and (2) non-polypoid growth carcinoma. The labeling index of anti-DNA polymerase α and Ki-67 in non-polypoid growth carcinoma was significantly higher than in polypoid growth carcinoma. The labeling index of polypoid growth carcinoma was significantly higher than adenoma. The proliferating cells in polypoid growth carcinoma and adenoma were mainly distributed in the upper third of intramucosal neoplastic gland. However, in non-polypoid growth carcinoma, the proliferating cells of intramucosal lesion were scattered mainly in the lower third along the neoplastic gland. The distribution pattern of proliferating cells in early carcinoma with non-polypoid growth were similar to those of non-polypoid growth advanced carcinoma. These results suggested that submucosal invasion occurred more rapidly in intramucosal non-polypoid growth carcinoma.
To clarify the mechanism of the increase of hepatic protein synthesis observed in the obstructive jaundiced rats, hepatocellular protein synthesis (HPS) and secretory protein synthesis (SPS) were estimated in the rats with obstructive jaundice and the contents of the following in the peripheral blood were determined in 21 patients with obstructive jaundice before and two weeks after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD): interleukin-1β (IL-1/β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), endotoxin (Et), acute-phase protein (APP) and negative acute-phase protein (NAPP). The results: (1) HPS and SPS were markedly increased by obstructive jaundice; (2) IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly high and were reduced after PTBD; (3) neither TNFα nor Et was detected; (4) APP were significantly high and failed to decline after PTBD; (5) NAPP were significantly low and the contents were restored to the normal levels after PTBD. These results suggest that increased hepatic protein synthesis observed in the rats with obstructive jaundice corespond to the increased hepatic production of APP in patients with obstructive jaundice.
The diagnostic value of angiography for small hepatocellular carcinoma was evaluated in comparison with histology, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and ultrasonography. A total of 120 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (less than 3cm in size) were examined. The definitive detection rate for primary tumors less than 2cm in size was 44.9% by angiography, while it was 68.6% for primary tumors between 2cm and 3cm in size. When the primary tumor was less than 2cm in size and without tumor vessels on angiography, it tended to be of Edmondson's grade 1 and to show fatty change. When the primary tumor was less than 2cm in size and without tumor stain while noncancerous parenchyma showed irregular stain, it tended to be of Edmondson's grade 1 and normotrabecular type. Angiography was found to be of particular value in detecting satellite tumors with a nodular parenchymal echo pattern in non-cancerous areas, because ultrasonography often fails to differentiate these satellite tumors from non-affected parenchyma.
We established a new method of purification and culture of mouse gallbladder epithelial cells. In primary culture, mouse gallbladder tissue was cultured on collagen gel using microexplant culture method; the epithelial cells spread in a single sheet from the microexplant toward the periphery on the collagen gel. Tiny fragment of the collagen gel containing the border of epithelial cell layer was retransplanted onto the another collagen gel for secondary culture. This retransplantation allowed the proliferation of the epithelial cells without mesenchymal contamination, which spread on the collagen gel at the rate of 0.29±0.06mm per day for more than two weeks. The cultured epithelial cells showed cuboid or columnar shape with focal mucus production, which is morphologically and functionally similar to the in vivo epithelial cells. This suggests that this in vitro culture method can be used to pathophysiological studies of biliary epithelial cells as well as for the method of purification of the epithelial cells.