In order to investigate the effect of adrenergic nerve system on acid secretion at the cell-levels, acid secretion of isolated parietal cells stimulated by various adrenergic agonists was observed by measuring the accumulation of14C-aminopyrine (A.P.). Both isoproterenol, beta receptor agonist, and salbutamol, beta-2 receptor selective agonist, increased A.P. accumulation, whereas dobutamine, beta-1 receptor selective agonist, showed no effect. And beta-2 receptor on parietal cells was detected by binding assay. These data may suggest that parietal cells have beta-2 receptors through which acid secretion will occur.
The hemodynamics of the intrahepatic portal vein in 35 healthy subjects and 74 patients with liver cirrhosis was studied by measuring blood flow velocity with pulsed Doppler ultrasound technique. The flow velocity of portal vein decreased from the portal trunk to the first branches and to the second branches in the right and left lobes. Especially, an abrupt decrease of the flow velocity in the umbilical part of the left portal vein was characteristic of hemodynamics in the intrahepatic portal vein. Theflow velocity in the third branches decreased more than that of the second branch in the right portalvein, but did not exist in the left. And the velocity was almost equal in all the subsegments. Blood clots of the left portal vein in 25 of 36 lesions were found in 31 patients with intrahepatic portal vein thrombus. This characteristic hemodynamics of the left portal vein was thought to be the main cause for the formation of blood clots. In the group with liver cirrhosis, the flow velocity was lower than in healthy subjects in the portal trunk, bilateral first branches and right second branches, but did not exist in the left second branch and bilateral third branches. No interrelationship between the intrahepatic portal flow velocity and the severity of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension was observed.
Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (TcGSA) is a newly developed receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical, specific for the asialogycoprotein receptor, which resides exclusively on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. Clinical utility of TcGSA was evaluated in 3 control subjects with normal livers and in 54 patients with various liver diseases. The parameter, Receptor Index, was derived from liver and heart time-activity data and is the ratio of radioactivity of the liver over the radioactivity of the liver plus heart at 15min after the intravenous injection of 3mg of TcGSA. Receptor concentration ([R]o) was obtained by kinetic analysis of liver and heart time-activity data using pharmacokinetic nonlinear modeling. Values for the Receptor Index and [R]o were statistically different in the control subjects and in patients with mild, moderate, and severeliver diseases. Good correlations were obtained between the Receptor Index, [R]o and conventional liverfunction tests, such as Child-Turcotte criteria score, prothrombin time, and indocyanine green test. Receptor Index and [R]o were properly estimated even in patients with obstructive jaundice or remarkable portocaval shunt. These data suggest that the receptor imaging as well as its parameters, Receptor Index and [R]o, is a potentially practical and reliable diagnostic method for estimating the functioning hepatocyte mass and for assessing liver function.
Sonograms of 282 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) less than 5cm in size were examined. Among these, 73 cases of resected or biopsied HCCs were compared in terms of their pathologic findings and sonograms. Low echoic pattern was the more common among smaller HCCs, and low echoic periphery pattern tended to prevail with increasing size. The pathologic factors of fatty change and clear cell formation are responsible for elevating the echo level. Among HCCs less than 2cm, the low echoic group is more differentiated than the iso-echoic group by Edmondson's classification. "Lateral acoustic shadow", "nodule in nodule", and "septum"are characteristic findings in HCC bysonography, and they correspond to the pathologic findings. However, "posterior echo enhancement"was not seen to be specific for HCC, as it was also observed with similarly frequency in hemangiomas.
In vitro effect of somatostatin analog, SMS 201-995 (SMS), on pancreatic exocrine secretion was investigated using isolated rat pancreatic acini. SMS had no effect on basal, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8)- or secretin-stimulated amylase release. SMS inhibited pancreatic amylase release in response to simultaneous stimulation with secretin and CCK-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed with 10nM SMS and maximal inhibition with 0.1-1μM SMS. Amylase release in response to the combination of 100pM CCK-8, 1nM secretin and 0.1-1μM SMS was similar to that to 100pM CCK-8 alone. Secretin significantly increased acinar cell cAMP content. SMS partially inhibited an increase in cAMP content induced by secretin. The present study has demonstrated, therefore, that SMS directly inhibits the potentiatory effect of secretin on exocrine secretion in part by inhibiting an increase in secretin-induced cAMP accumulation in rat pancreatic acinar cells.