We reported an experimental study on a new non-invasive method for evaluation of gastric emptying by abdominal X-ray after administration of radiopaque barium grains. Adult male Wistar rats weighing around 200g were used. After they were fasted for 24 hours, 1 ml of gruel mixed with 10 barium grains (1 mm diameter) was introduced into the rat stomach with a catheter. The rats were sacrificed at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after the introduction of the gruel. X-rays were taken at each time point and grains in the stomach were counted in the X-ray photographs. All barium grains were emptied from the stomach in 150 minutes. After incision of the abdomen, the residual gastric contents were weighed. A positive correlation was found between the grains in the stomach and the weight of the contents. We studied the effects of cisapride, scopolamine buthylbromide and enprostil on the gastric emptying time by this method. Cisapride accelerated gastric emptying, whereas scopolamine buthylbromide delayed it. A prostaglandin E2 analog, en prostil delayed the gastric emptying. This method was found to be a simple procedure which is outstanding for quantitative determination and useful in evaluating gastric emptying functions.
Clinicopathologic characteristics of 92 colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LST) endoscopically or surgically resected were examined. Lesions were macroscopically classified into two categories according to their surface structure : (1) granular type (G type, 47 lesions), (2) flat type (F type, 45 lesions). The size (maximum diameter) of G type lesions was 24.7±11.3mm (Mean±SD) and that of F type lesions was 14.2±7.4mm. The size of G type lesions was significantly larger than that of F type lesions (p<0.01). Among G type lesions, cancerous lesion was present in 2 (25.0%) of 8 lesions 10-14mm in diameter, 2 (22.2%) of 9 lesions 15-19mm in diameter and 19 (63.3%) of 30 lesions more than 20mm in diameter. Regarding F type lesions, cancerous lesion was present in 15 (46.9%) of 32 lesions 10-14 mm in diameter, 4 (80.0%) of 5 lesions 15-19mm in diameter and 8 (100%) of 8 lesions more than 20mm in diameter. The incidence of carcinoma in F type lesions was higher than that in G type lesions irrespective of size. F type lesions with carcinoma showed a trend toward a higher frequency of submucosal invasion and F type lesions with adenoma revealed tendency of showing severe atypia in comparison with G type lesions. The adenomatous component of LST showed a tubulo-villous architecture in 13 (28.3%) of 46 G type lesions, however none of F type lesions had a tubulo-villous component. These results indicated that clinicopathologic characteristics of F type are obviously different from G type. Furthermore, F type had a higher malignant potential than G type and is thought to have a more important role as a precursor of colorectal carcinoma than G type.
We studied the effect of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI) on glucose tolerance in liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. All of 10 patients underwent PEI and aspiration biopsy of the tumor on separate day. Two-time oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), before and after PEI, were performed in all patients. There were no significant changes in blood glucose and insulin chronologically measured on aspiration biopsy and PEI. To detect changes in glucose tolerance, we compared the results of OGTT before PEI with those of OGTT after PEI. On the basis of results of OGTT before PEI, patients were classified to impaired glucose tolerance group (4) and diabetes mellitus group (6). Blood glucose at 180 minutes on OGTT after PEI showed significantly higher value than that of OGTT before PEI, but insulin response was not suppressed. From these experiments we speculate that exaggerated insulin resistance due to injected ethanol may be one of the factors influencing glucose tolerance after PEI.
Obliteration of portal-systemic shunts surgically or by interventional radiological techniques is fairly effective in reversing intractable portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE), but is often associated with ascites accumulation and/or formation of esophageal varices. This study reports four patients with incapacitating PSE who were treated by interventional radiological techniques via percutaneous transhepatic route. One case had the shunt embolized directly. In the other three the blockage was placed on the proximal part of the splenic vein, whereby disconnecting the mesenteric-portal blood flow from the systemic circulation while preserving the shunt. The patient of shunt closure showed transient correction of encephalopathy, but developed massive ascites and esophageal varices, encephalopathy recurred, resulting in death from hepatic failure two months after the procedure. In the cases of shunt-preserving disconnection of portal and systemic circulation (SPDPS) immediate and permanent clearing of encephalopathy was achieved without manifestation of ascites or esophageal varices during the follow-up period of 10 to 31 months. The difference of portal pressure between before and after the procedure was 18mmHg in the shunt-closed patient and 3 mmHg in SPDPS group. We conclude from this limited experience that SPDPS can be an effective and safe method in treating PSE in adequately selected patients.