We retrospectively reviewed 289 cases followed for a long time after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripy (ESWL) for gallstones. Follow-up periods ranged from 0.5 years to 9.2 years, with a median of 4.1 years. The complete resolution rate was 45.6%. A solitary gallstone, non-calcified gallstones on CT, and Tsuchiya's sonographic type Ia and Ib gallstones were found to be statistically significant variable for resolution of the disease. With a maximum follow-up period of 9 years, the cumulative recurrence rate was 30.7%. Among the 156 patients whose gallstones did not resolve, 70 were symptomatic and the other 86 were asymptomatic. Thirty-eight of the symptomatic patients (54.3%) became symptom-free, while 23 asymptomatic patients (29.1%) became symptomatic. The cumulative rate of occurrence of colic attacks and/or acute cholecystitis was significantly higher in the cases with lithotripsy fragments 4 mm or more in size than in the cases wih fragments 3 mm or less in size (51.8% vs. 16.7%;p<0.05). ESWL was followed by surgery in 23.1% because symptoms developed or became aggravated after ESWL in 58.3% of them. Gallbladder cancer was discovered in one case. Patients undergoing ESWL should be followed by focusing on postoperative recurrence, symptoms, and gallbladder cancer.