We studied the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H.P.) on several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with peptic ulcer disease. 205 H.P.-positive patients with peptic ulcer disease were successfully eradicated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDLcholesterol (LDL), HDL-cholesterol, γ-GTP, uric acid and plasma glucose of those were measured bofore eradication, one year after, and two years after eradication. As a control, same parameters were measured in 430 subjects without gastroenterological disease including both H.P. -positives and H.P. -negatives. Those eradicated patients showed a significant increase in BW, BMI, TC, LDL, TG and γ-GTP over the first one year and two years after eradication. No significant difference of any parameters were observed between control groups both with and without H.P. No significant difference was observed over one year in both control groups. It is suggested that those cardiovascular risk factors should be regarded carefully to prevent the acceleration of life-style disease after H.P. eradication therapy.