Dynamic computed tomography (CT) is an established method for the evaluation of perfusion in acute ischemic stroke, but is not frequently used to assess infratentorial ischemia. Eleven patients with vertebrobasilar ischemia underwent dynamic CT on admission and/or during the follow-up period. The time of appearance (TA) and time to peak (TTP) were mapped and differences in TA (ΔTA) and TTP (ΔTTP) between the bilateral middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories were calculated. Conventional angiography and brain imaging including CT and magnetic resonance imaging were also performed. The TA and TTP maps obtained within 48 hours after onset exhibited time delay in eight of nine patients in the bilateral PCA territories. ΔTA and ΔTTP were greater in patients with stenosis or occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries or the basilar artery, and in patients without collateral circulation via the posterior communicating arteries than in control subjects. Furthermore, TA and TTP normalized dramatically in patients with recanalization of the arteries. ΔTA and ΔTTP were also normalized. ΔTA and ΔTTP were negatively correlated with the time from onset to examination. Dynamic CT can provide important information in patients with vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke, and may allow the diagnosis of acute ischemia and monitoring of the course.
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) was used to treat seven patients with pituitary metastases between November 1994 and February 2003. The diagnoses were based on magnetic resonance imaging and clinical symptoms in six patients and by previous surgery in one patient. The cancer originated in the lung in five patients, and in the breast in two patients. The tumor volume was 0.2 to 9.6 cm3 (mean 4.0 cm3). The marginal dose was 10 to 14 Gy (mean 11.9 Gy) because of the close proximity to the optic apparatus. The maximum radiation dose to the optic apparatus was 8 to 10 Gy (mean 9.5 Gy). The survival period after GKS was 0.3 to 42 months (mean 11.5 months). Five patients died of systemic disease, and one patient died of unknown causes 10 days after GKS. Tumor growth was controlled in five of the six patients (83%) followed up after GKS. Tumor regrowth was seen 18 months after GKS in one patient. The clinical symptoms improved in five of the six patients (83%) followed up. GKS is effective and useful for the primary treatment of pituitary metastases with limited survival and less invasiveness compared to conventional radiation therapy.
This study evaluated the combination of the classical interlaminar approach and the intertransverse route through a midline approach for the treatment of 18 patients with far-lateral lumbar disc herniations, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging. The patients presented with acute severe sciatica, antalgic posture, positive Lasègue sign and femoral stretch test, motor and sensory deficits, and reflex loss findings. Discectomy of all 18 patients was performed by the combined approach. Neurological outcome of all patients was excellent in the follow-up period, ranging from 5 to 8 years. This combined midline approach permits complete evacuation of the involved disc level and treatment of additional bone resection procedures. Therefore, we advocate this approach in far-lateral lumbar disc herniation cases.
A 49-year-old man presented with a brain tumor and colon carcinoma. The patient had been treated under diagnoses of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and Muir-Torre syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion in the right frontal lobe with diffuse high intensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. A few small lesions were enhanced by gadolinium on the T1-weighted images. Histological examination revealed the brain neoplasm was astrocytoma grade III according to the World Health Organization classification. Molecular genetic analysis detected microsatellite instability and p53 mutation only in the tumor tissue, indicating a failure of the deoxyribonucleic acid mismatch repair system. These results suggest that inactivation of mismatch repair system and p53 is closely associated with the tumorigenesis of this neoplasm. The final diagnosis was Turcot syndrome type 1.
A 21-year-old female was admitted with complaints of severe impairment of vision. The visual acuity was 0.02 in both eyes along with residual visual fields and central scotomas. Neuroimaging disclosed a chiasmatic-hypothalamic glioma. Surgery was performed with partial removal of the intrachiasmatic part of the intrinsic tumor. The histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma. Progressive recovery of vision began in the first week after surgery. Adjuvant treatment included one course of fractionated radiation therapy and six courses of chemotherapy. Complete recovery of visual acuity occurred after 10 months, and the visual fields were restored after an additional 6 months. Her vision has been stable during 2 years of follow up. The prognosis for recovery of vision after treatment of optic pathway gliomas mainly depends on the severity of visual loss at admission and is negatively influenced by intrinsic tumor growth, symmetrical extension, and involvement of the chiasm. Despite the presence of all these factors in the present case, multimodality management resulted in the complete recovery of visual functions. Surgery may be indicated in cases of intrinsic chiasmatic gliomas complicated by severe visual loss.
A 26-year-old man with multiple intracranial masses widely attached to the dura presented with hypopituitarism and sexual impotence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesions were isointense on the T1-weighted and hypointense on the T2-weighted images, and involved the bilateral sphenoid ridges, the convexity, and tentorial incisura. The lesion was partially removed via the right pterional approach. Histological examination identified tuberculoma associated with giant cells and caseous necrosis. Although his neurological and radiological signs worsened paradoxically during anti-tuberculosis therapy, he recovered spontaneously upon continuation of the anti-tuberculous treatment. However, he suffered recurrence as tuberculous meningitis, after administration of anti-tuberculous therapy for 18 months. Additional anti-tuberculous treatment for 12 months stabilized the disease. Tuberculoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of enhanced intracranial mass lesions. Anti-tuberculous therapy may require extended periods of up to 36 months to stabilize the disease.
A 66-year-old man presented with a maxillary carcinoma manifesting as unrelenting spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Anterior craniofacial resection of the tumor was performed with multilayered repair of the dura mater. Maxillary carcinoma usually manifests as nasal blockage, epistaxis, or a mass lesion. This case highlights the necessity for a high index of suspicion for malignant tumor and the need for meticulous repair of the dura mater to seal off the CSF leakage.
C3-4 cervical disc prolapse was associated with basilar invagination and short neck in a 21-year-old man and additionally with an extensive Klippel-Feil abnormality and fusion of multiple cervical vertebrae in a 32-year-old man. The transoral surgical route was adopted for cervical discectomy in the latter case and an additional odontoidectomy in the former case. Interbody plate and screw fixation was carried out in the patient with Klippel-Feil abnormality. Both the patients were relieved of symptoms and remained asymptomatic at follow up. Simultaneous fixation procedure is not mandatory after transoral surgery in patients with basilar invagination.
A 46-year-old woman presented with multiple neurenteric cysts in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Neuroimaging demonstrated neurenteric cysts in the interspace between the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis, the lateral side of the right cerebellar hemisphere, and the ventral side of the spinal cord at the C-2 and C-4 levels. Total resection of the paravermian cyst and partial removal of the spinal cyst at the C-4 level were performed. Histological examination showed the cyst wall consisted of single or multiple layers of columnar epithelial cells with secretory granules, with mucin secretion verified by periodic acid-Schiff staining. Immunohistochemical staining showed the walls were positive for the cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen, and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein. These findings confirmed the endodermal origin. The diagnosis was neurenteric cyst. The paravermian cyst disappeared, but the spinal cyst at the C-4 level recurred 8 months later. Reoperation became necessary 16 months later. The other two cysts also showed enlargement at 6 or 15 months. Total removal of neurenteric cyst is recommended if possible.
Four cases of congenital inclusion dermoid cysts located over the anterior fontanelle occurred in male Turkish children aged 6 months to 5 years. These rare cysts presented as slow-growing soft masses over the anterior fontanelle. The cysts were totally removed without recurrence. Dermoid cysts can be easily cured because of the absence of intracranial extension.