Periprocedural neurological complications (PNCs) after carotid stenting were retrospectively analyzed to determine the risk factors with the use of various protective devices. Forty-three lesions in 40 patients were treated by carotid stenting with distal balloon protection for nearly all postdilation procedures and some predilation procedures. The following variables were statistically analyzed for association with PNCs: diameter of the angioplasty balloon used for predilation, use of a distal protection balloon during predilation, use of a protection balloon during postdilation, lesion-bifurcation distance, length of the lesion, age, clinical presentation of the lesion (symptomatic or asymptomatic), and hypercholesterolemia. PNCs occurred in five patients, four with minor deficits and one with major deficits. Univariate analysis showed large diameter of the predilation angioplasty balloon (p = 0.0026), use of a protection balloon during predilation (p = 0.0075), lesion length (p = 0.0003), and lesion-bifurcation distance (p = 0.0006) were significantly associated with PNCs. Multivariate analysis of these four variables showed that use of a large angioplasty balloon for predilation was the only independent predictor (p = 0.004, odds ratio 34.00) for the occurrence of PNCs. Use of a large angioplasty balloon for predilation carries the risk of periprocedural embolic complications. Therefore, even when a protection device is used, predilation should be performed with a small balloon.
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are expected to be useful donor sources for cell transplantation therapy in Parkinson's disease. However, control of the differentiational lineage, especially into dopaminergic neurons, is still difficult. Thus, genetic modification of NPCs to produce l-dopa is potentially useful. The present study prepared high titer retrovirus carrying human tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (HTH-1) gene. HTH-1 gene could be efficiently transduced into NPCs obtained from the E12.5 rat mesencephalon. This retroviral gene transduction caused no apparent changes in survival, proliferation, or differentiation. In vitro, HTH-1 gene-transduced NPCs released little l-dopa and addition of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase, was required for production of l-dopa. In vivo, three of seven hemi-parkinsonian model rats that received HTH-1 gene-transduced donor NPCs achieved functional recovery. High titer retroviral vector for gene transduction could be used to prepare NPCs for transplantation to hemi-parkinsonian model rats. However, functional recovery after transplantation of HTH-1 gene-transduced NPCs was incomplete.
The manual occipital ventricular puncture is a standard surgical procedure, but specific targeting has not received sufficient attention despite the experience of anatomical disorientation. This study tried to identify an exact site for the ideal trajectory with this method, especially in the sagittal plane, which avoids contact with the choroid plexus that may be the major source of complications. A total of 44 consecutive adult cases undergoing cerebrospinal fluid shunting through the occipital route for hydrocephalus were retrospectively reviewed for the following: correlations between burr hole site, direction of puncture, and location of the ventricular catheter based on postsurgical radiological studies; calculation of the ideal trajectory to place the catheter tip in the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle without contact with the choroid plexus through the standard occipital burr hole. In addition, the relationships between the location of the ventricular structure, the cranial base line connecting the nasion and inion, and the size of the ventricle were evaluated. Incorrect catheter emplacement was found in five cases, which suggested that this procedure using the standard burr hole site and aim point might result in incorrect catheter placement. The ideal external aim points were widely distributed because of the variable heights of ventricular structures from the cranial baseline. No correlation between the locations of the anatomical points and ventricular size was found. The present study could not define a standard external aim point. Tailored preoperative planning of the trajectory is recommended.
A boy with shaken baby syndrome first presented at age 3 months with acute subdural hematoma (SDH) and was treated by subdural tapping at a local hospital. Chronic SDH was identified at a rehabilitation center at age 19 months. The chronic SDH appeared to have developed within the preceding 16 months. His physical and mental development was already delayed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 20-mm thick right chronic SDH with midline shift and small bilateral subdural effusions. The chronic SDH had compressed the right cerebral hemisphere. MR imaging also disclosed bilateral cerebral atrophy. 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the non-hematoma hemisphere, although CBF is said to decrease on the chronic SDH side, especially if midline shift is present. Burr hole craniotomy with external drainage was performed, but the patient showed no change in CBF postoperatively, although the volume of hematoma decreased. The patient was clinically unchanged immediately after the operation. In this case, SPECT measurement of CBF was important in evaluating the pathophysiology of the delays in physical and mental growth. Atrophy of the bilateral hemispheres was the major mechanism in the decreased CBF, not the compression by chronic SDH. MR imaging and SPECT can determine the surgical indications for chronic SDH in patients with cortical atrophy.
A 48-year-old woman with a 29-year history of pulseless disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a rare ruptured intracranial aneurysm of the right vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The aneurysm was successfully clipped. Pulseless disease is a chronic and nonspecific vasculitis involving mainly the aorta and its main branches such as the carotid, subclavian, vertebral, and coronary arteries. The cervical vessels are mostly affected in Japanese patients. Almost all patients have ischemic disorders of the involved vessels, manifesting as syncope, visual disturbance, or a faint or absent pulse. The mechanisms responsible for pulseless disease and intracranial aneurysms are likely to be different.
A 37-year-old man with Behçet's disease suffered secondary subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hematoma in the right temporal lobe caused by a ruptured aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery. The aneurysm was successfully clipped. Aneurysm formation is common in the visceral arteries in Behçet's disease, but extremely rare in the intracranial arteries. Vasculitis may be involved in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms in patients with Behçet's disease.
A 63-year-old male presented with sudden onset of right hemiplegia and global aphasia. On admission he was stuporous. Computed tomography (CT) revealed no abnormalities except for right intraventricular meningioma found incidentally. Emergency angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) and left M1 trunk whereas the left ICA bifurcation remained patent. The ipsilateral ICA was permanently occluded with two detachable balloons to prevent thrombus migration into the distal ICA and middle cerebral artery (MCA), followed by thrombolysis of the clot in the ipsilateral M1 through the contralateral ICA with urokinase (total dose 420,000 U) under systemic heparinization. Partial recanalization of the ipsilateral MCA was accomplished. The time interval from onset to recanalization was about 3 hours. Postoperative CT showed no hemorrhagic transformation. Slight right paresis and mild motor aphasia persisted 2 months later and he was transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Thrombolysis of the MCA embolism can be performed through the contralateral ICA in the presence of ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
A 59-year-old male presented with a left organized subdural hematoma. The hematoma appeared as a homogeneous low density area on brain computed tomography and as hyperintense and isointense area on both fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed a crescent hyperintense area under the dura mater and an irregular hypointense area over the brain surface in the left subdural space. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the solid and liquid hematoma were 0.86 ± 0.32 × 10-3 and 2.56 ± 0.39 × 10-3 mm2/sec, respectively. The ADC value of the solid hematoma was similar to acute subdural or intraparenchymal hematoma, and that of the liquid was similar to cerebrospinal fluid. Burr-hole surgery failed to remove all the hematoma, and he complained of persistent headache. The hematoma was removed through a craniotomy without further neurological deficits. Organized subdural hematoma often requires craniotomy for evacuation because of its solid content. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and measurement of ADC values can differentiate solid from liquid hematoma, so are useful for selection of the surgical procedure.
A 55-year-old woman presented a rare ectopic pituitary adenoma in the right cavernous sinus manifesting as acromegaly. The tumor was removed via transsphenoidal approach. Intraoperative observation showed the adenoma was located entirely within the right cavernous sinus, and separated from the normal pituitary gland by the medial wall of the cavernous sinus. There was no communication between the tumor and the pituitary. Histological examination showed a growth hormone-releasing adenoma. Including our case, only eight of 86 reported ectopic adenomas have occurred in the cavernous sinus. Such ectopic presentation may be responsible for failed transsphenoidal surgery for endocrinologically active tumors.
A 21-year-old male patient with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was treated by total L-5 laminectomy with foraminotomy and posterior fusion through the posterior approach. His complaints of severe low back pain and limited spine mobility were resolved. No new deficits occurred. The surgical management of spondyloptosis includes one-, two-, or three-stage operations with posterior, anterior, or combined approaches. Careful posterior decompression and posterior fusion without reduction may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis.