Head injuries due to high-velocity missiles and shrapnel as a result of military conflicts have become a very important cause of death or severe neurological deficits. Military-type missiles have high velocities and transfer higher amounts of energy to neural tissue, compared to civil-type missiles. This physical phenomenon also causes greater neural tissue destruction. Shrapnel particles derive from blasts and cause less severe injury because of the irregular particle shape and low energy transmission. This study analyzed 135 patients with head trauma, 80 patients (59%) injured by missiles and 55 patients (41%) by shrapnel. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at admission were 3 to 7 in 69 patients, 8 to 10 in 29 patients, and 11 to 15 in 37 patients. The most common anatomical localizations were the right frontoparietal region in 42 patients and the left frontoparietal region in 40 patients. One hundred patients (74%) were operated on immediately and 35 patients (26%) were treated conservatively in the intensive care unit. Ten of the 135 patients died (7.4%), seven from missile injury and three from shrapnel injury. In this study, we found that high mortality was associated with low GCS score at admission, presence of multilobar or skull base injuries, and involvement of ventricles. Early and aggressive surgical intervention decreased the mortality.
A model of intracranial arteriovenous (AV) shunting must incorporate local hypoperfusion and simulate the hemodynamics of arteriovenous malformations. In this study, the hemodynamics of an intracranial AV shunt model in the acute stage were clarified. End-to-side anastomoses with a femoral vein graft were performed between a cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the superior sagittal sinus in anesthetized dogs. Local cerebral blood flow (l-CBF) was measured by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. l-CBF decreased suddenly by 34.2% when the shunt was opened in the ipsilateral MCA territory. Upon re-occlusion, l-CBF immediately equaled or exceeded the pre-opening value and returned to the pre-opening value within the next 15 minutes. Opening the shunt produced little change in l-CBF in the territory of the ipsilateral or contralateral anterior cerebral artery. The decrease in l-CBF was correlated with shunt volume only in the MCA territory. l-CBF manifested a PaCO2-dependent increase before shunt opening, but CO2 reactivity was impaired after opening the shunt only in the MCA territory. This dog model features local hypoperfusion due to intracranial AV shunting and disturbance of CO2 reactivity in the acute stage. The hemodynamics of this model will be confirmed in the chronic stage.
The effectiveness of ramosetron tablets and granisetron injection was compared for reducing the frequency of nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with malignant glioma undergoing ACNU chemotherapy. Patients with malignant glioma to be treated with ACNU chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive oral ramosetron (20 patients) or intravenous granisetron (19 patients) prior to ACNU injection. Gastrointestinal toxicity within 48 hours of ACNU injection was compared to that in patients who had received ACNU chemotherapy with dopamine D2 receptor-blocker as a historical control group. Within 24 hours of the administration of ACNU, 15 of the 20 patients treated with ramosetron and 16 of the 19 treated with granisetron were nausea-free, and 14 of the former and 14 of the latter regained their normal appetite. There was no significant difference in the anti-emetic effects. Ten of the 17 controls experienced no vomiting within 6 hours of the injection of ACNU, five were nausea-free within 24 hours, and two retained their normal appetite within 24 hours. Oral ramosetron has the same anti-anorectic and anti-emetic effects as intravenous granisetron. Ramosetron tablets are less expensive and are easy to take, so should be on the list of first-choice anti-emetic drugs for patients treated with ACNU chemotherapy.
A 46-year-old woman presented with non-traumatic anterior cerebral artery dissection manifesting as sudden onset of headache and motor weakness of the right lower limb. Angiography revealed luminal narrowing of the left anterior cerebral artery from the A3 portion to the distal portion. Sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensity due to an intramural hematoma around the flow void signal of the affected anterior cerebral artery. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging should be performed in suspected cases of anterior cerebral artery dissection to detect the diagnostic finding of intramural hematoma.
A 67-year-old woman with a recent history of recurrent ischemic stroke secondary to right vertebral artery stenosis suffered acute onset of left homonymous hemianopsia and the medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome, which resolved with hyperdynamic therapy. However, consciousness deteriorated 6 hours later. Perfusion computed tomography (CT) revealed regions of prolonged mean transit time in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, brainstem, and right occipital lobe, which were more extensive than the ischemic lesions demonstrated by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Subsequent cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery. The patient underwent emergent left superficial temporal artery to left superior cerebellar artery bypass. Postoperatively she demonstrated resolution of the preoperative perfusion CT/diffusion-weighted MR imaging mismatch and improved neurological deficits. Early revascularization in a patient with perfusion CT/diffusion-weighted MR imaging mismatch following acute vertebrobasilar stroke can lead to improvement in cerebral perfusion and neurological function.
A 74-year-old woman presented with a microcystic meningioma which manifested as mental disturbance. A rapidly growing tumor in the left middle fossa had not been detected by examination 10 months before. The tumor was remarkably enhanced by contrast medium on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and was associated with massive perifocal edema. Cerebral angiography revealed that the tumor was mainly fed by the left middle meningeal artery, which was embolized preoperatively. The tumor was completely removed and no postoperative adjuvant therapy was administered. The histological diagnosis was microcystic meningioma with many mitotic figures and a MIB-1 labeling index of 12.8%. Four months later, the tumor recurred and invaded the paranasal sinus. Focal irradiation successfully controlled further regrowth. This case suggests that microcystic meningioma may have aggressive features, and close observation is necessary even after gross total removal.
A 34-year-old man presented with progressive diminution of vision in the left eye for 7 years. He had suffered left hemicranial headache associated with left retro-orbital pain and diplopia for 3 months. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a pituitary tumor located in the sella and extending into the right cavernous sinus. After transsphenoidal surgery, the vision improved drastically but the diplopia persisted. Postoperative MR imaging showed residual tumor in the right cavernous sinus. Follow-up examination after 3 years showed the diplopia had completely recovered and the residual tumor in the cavernous sinus had disappeared. Spontaneous resolution of a large intracavernous sinus residue of a pituitary adenoma may occur due to tumor necrosis.
A 1-year-old male infant presented with a rare cerebral composite tumor consisting of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) with epithelial and mesenchymal components and yolk sac tumor (YST) with Schiller-Duval bodies. He was admitted to our medical center with a 2-month history of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large, intra-axial solid tumor with a cyst in the left frontal lobe. Total resection of the tumor was performed. Histological examination showed two different main growth patterns: solid sheets of undifferentiated polygonal cells and a few rhabdoid cells with rosette structures and rhabdomyoblastic cells; and reticular or papillary structures with occasional Schiller-Duval bodies in a myxoid matrix. The immunohistochemical and electron microscopy findings indicated composite AT/RT and YST. Initial total resection of the tumor was subsequently followed by local recurrence, hydrocephalus, and spinal metastasis. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died 9 months after admission. AT/RT is a recently established entity of the central nervous system. The present case of composite AT/RT and YST in the frontal lobe indicates the poor prognosis of such tumors.
A 69-year-old woman presented with a transethmoidal meningoencephalocele manifesting as gradually developing anosmia. Examinations revealed a mass in the nasal cavity associated with multiple angiomas in her lip and orbit. Neuroimaging showed meningoencephalocele extending via the ethmoid sinus to the nasal cavity. She had no history of craniofacial trauma and intranasal or intracranial operation, and no skull base tumor was detected. Frontal base reconstruction was performed with a two-layer vascularized flap to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The dural defect was repaired with the pericranial flap, and the bony defect of the cribriform plate was reconstructed using the reversed U-shaped split temporalis musculofascial flap. Transethmoidal meningoencephalocele is a rare congenital malformation and almost half of the cases are identified in the first year of life. We should be aware of this clinical pathology and avoid unexpected rhinorrhea in elderly patients. The most important aspect of the operation is watertight closure of the patent passage to the intracranial compartment. The reversed U-shaped split temporalis musculofascial flap is useful to reconstruct the midline frontal base defect.
A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our institution complaining of headache and a 2-month history of blurred vision and increased urinary volume. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in the pituitary. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging showed high-intensity lesions in the optic nerves, hypothalamus, and thalamus. The histological diagnosis was pituitary abscess. The blurred vision was caused by inflammation, but not compression, of the optic nerves due to the pituitary abscess outside the hypophysis.