The sex difference in the seasonal occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the association of meteorological factors in Japan were analyzed in 1006 consecutive patients with SAH in Toyama, Japan from 1996 to 2000. The study investigated whether these meteorological factors could explain the seasonality of the incidence of SAH in each sex. Seasonal variation of SAH occurrence peaked in spring in men, but peaked in spring and winter in women. The difference between maximum temperature and minimum temperature was the greatest on the day previous to SAH occurrence in multiple individuals in men, whereas mean humidity was the greatest on that day in women. Interestingly, the difference between maximum temperature and minimum temperature peaked in spring and mean humidity in winter from the meteorological data over the 5 years. The relationship between humidity and occurrence of SAH may explain the sex difference of the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. The humidity change may be a specific and additional meteorological factor for the incidence of SAH in women.
False-negative diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging findings are often encountered during the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. The types of acute ischemia most likely to be missed by conventional DW imaging, and the utility of additional thin-section DW imaging of the infratentorium were investigated in 192 consecutive patients admitted within 24 hours of the onset of ischemic symptoms. If 6-mm section DW imaging at admission showed no obvious lesion, additional 3-mm section DW imaging of the infratentorium was performed. Six-mm section DW imaging failed to demonstrate ischemic lesion in 32 patients; 18 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA), 13 with infratentorial infarction, and one with supratentorial infarction. Three-mm section DW imaging revealed the ischemic lesions in 12 of these 32 patients. Most patients with negative 6-mm section DW imaging findings at admission suffered from either infratentorial infarction or TIA. If 6-mm section DW imaging shows no ischemic lesion, 3-mm section DW imaging of the infratentorium is considered to be useful for detection of the lesion.
A 43-year-old woman suffered clinical brain death after severe head injury. The patient met the criteria for the diagnosis of clinical brain death on Day 3. Aggressive hemodynamic and respiratory managements coupled with triple hormone therapy were performed at the family’s request, resulting in continued cardiac activity for a prolonged period. Spinal reflexes and automatisms were observed until cardiac arrest. Ventilatory support was discontinued on Day 168, when cardiac death was confirmed, and her kidneys and eyeballs were removed for transplantation. The patient survived for 165 days after the diagnosis of clinical brain death, which is an extremely prolonged period of somatic support for an adult patient after brain death. An extensive and informed discussion on the end-of-life treatment of clinically brain-dead patients is urgently required in Japan to establish treatment guidelines for such patients.
A 42-year-old woman presented with a rare case of fenestration of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) with associated aneurysm manifesting as headache. Computed tomography (CT) found no abnormalities. Three-dimensional CT angiography showed fenestration of the left ICA with an associated aneurysm. Direct surgery was performed for the aneurysm, and the patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. The present case of ICA fenestration associated with aneurysm indicates that surgical treatment should be considered for even small unruptured aneurysms arising from this location, because of the high risk of rupture.
A 74-year-old man presented with prolonged reversible neurological deficits caused by internal carotid artery stenosis. He underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) and developed persistent neurological deficits shortly following the intervention. Delayed gadolinium enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid space on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images indicated probable blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Post-procedural perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance images could not demonstrate distinct areas of hyperperfusion or hypoperfusion. The neurological deficits probably resulted from BBB disruption secondary to sudden hemodynamic change occurring during CAS.
A radiation-induced cerebellar glioma is extremely rare, and the etiology of such a tumor is unknown. We report a rare case of hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma occurring 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. We discuss the etiologies of the radiation-induced hemorrhagic cerebellar glioma as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy.
A 26-year-old nonleukemic woman presented with lumbosacral granulocytic sarcoma manifesting as progressive low back pain and numbness of her left lower leg persisting for 3 months. Physical examination revealed hypesthesia within the left S1 area of the sensory dermatome, decreased Achilles tendon reflex in the left lower extremity, and walking impairment due to severe pain in her left hip and leg. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an extradural mass in the spinal canal at the L5-S2 levels with invasion to the pelvis from the left sacral foramen. Positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) showed hyperaccumulation indicating malignant tumor. Baseline laboratory data were normal. Decompressive laminectomy and tumor removal were performed. Histological examination identified granulocytic sarcoma. Bone marrow involvement was absent. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, resulting in reduced residual lesion and neurological improvement. Immediate diagnosis and adequate systematic treatment are recommended for spinal granulocytic sarcoma in nonleukemic patients to prevent or delay progression to leukemia. The importance of immunohistochemical staining in the differential diagnosis from other types of spinal tumor, and the efficacy of FDG-PET for evaluation of the treatment are also emphasized.
A 57-year-old obese female presented with vagal and hypoglossal nerve pareses, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed Chiari malformation type I. Standard surgical treatment for Chiari malformation type I was successfully performed. However, immediately after the patient was extubated, she developed signs of upper airway obstruction and chest radiography revealed pulmonary edema. Her ventilation was assisted by maintaining positive end-expiratory pressure at 8 cmH2O. Intravenous furosemide and hydrocortisone were administered. Her respiratory status improved 12 hours later, and she was extubated 3 days after the operation. Postextubational course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 2 weeks after extubation. The initial neurological deficits had mostly disappeared by 10 months after the operation. This unusual case of negative pressure pulmonary edema indicates that obesity and lower cranial nerve paresis are further risk factors for pulmonary edema as a postextubational complication of surgical treatment.
A 56-year-old man presented with a rare spinal epidural abscess manifesting as attacks of back pain associated with fever, weight loss, generalized weakness and fatigability, and constipation. He had multiple skin pustules in the last 4 months treated with oral amoxicillin. He had suffered diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years and was insulin dependent. Physical examination found slight paraparesis with sensory loss around the nipple and sphincteric urgency, and diabetic retinopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edematous T2, T3, and T4 vertebral bodies, and narrow enhanced T3-4 disk space with a soft tissue enhanced mass mostly anterior to the spinal cord and indenting the cord. T3-4 costotransversectomy was performed to remove the extradural mass and evacuate the intradiscal material. Histological examination of the bone found osteomyelitis, and culture of the soft tissue showed Salmonella typhi sensitive to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Intravenous ceftriaxone administration was started, and the patient was discharged after 6 days in good condition. The outcome of spinal epidural abscess is devastating unless recognized and treated early. The present case of spinal epidural abscess in the thoracic spine caused by Salmonella typhi infection illustrates the importance of cultures to assess the drug sensitivity of the specific strain detected and adjusting the treatment accordingly.
Wide exposure of lesions during the subtemporal approach often leads to temporal lobe injury caused by excessive retraction. A brain retraction technique using gelatin sponge pieces was developed to minimize intraoperative brain retraction during the subtemporal approach. After aspirating cerebrospinal fluid and slackening the temporal lobe, 2-3 pieces of gelatin sponge are inserted between the dura and surfaces of the anterior and posterior parts of the temporal lobe, then covered with cottonoids. The gelatin sponge pieces expand and thus expose the free margin of the tentorium with minimal brain retraction. This technique was used in 50 patients undergoing clipping for cerebral aneurysms. Although computed tomography indicated minor brain injury caused by retraction in three patients with ruptured aneurysm of the basilar artery bifurcation, no patients experienced new neurological deficits other than transient ipsilateral oculomotor nerve paresis. In conclusion, gelatin sponge, with its innate mechanical characteristics and ease of application, seems to offer an alternative retractor in neurosurgical interventions using the subtemporal approach for patients with unruptured aneurysm or non-severe subarachnoid hemorrhage.