Dramatic breakthroughs in the treatment and assessment of neurological diseases are lacking. We believe that conventional methods have several limitations. Computerized technologies, including virtual reality, augmented reality, and robot assistant systems, are advancing at a rapid pace. In this study, we used Parkinson’s disease (PD) as an example to elucidate how the latest computerized technologies can improve the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. Dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation remain the most effective interventions for treating PD. Subjective scales, such as the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr stage, are still the most widely used assessments. Wearable sensors, virtual reality, augmented reality, and robot assistant systems are increasingly being used for evaluation of patients with PD. The use of such computerized technologies can result in safe, objective, real-time behavioral assessments. Our experiences and understanding of PD have led us to believe that such technologies can provide real-time assessment, which will revolutionize the traditional assessment and treatment of PD. New technologies are desired that can revolutionize PD treatment and facilitate real-time adjustment of treatment based on motor fluctuations, such as telediagnosis systems and “smart treatment systems.” The use of these technologies will substantially improve both the assessment and the treatment of neurological diseases before next-generation treatments, such as stem cell and genetic therapy, and next-generation assessments, can be clinically practiced, although the current level of artificial intelligence cannot replace the role of clinicians.
Endoscopic skull base reconstruction (ESBR) following expanded-endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) in high-risk non-ideal endoscopic reconstructive candidates remains extremely challenging, and further innovations are still necessary. Here, the aim is to study the reconstructive knowledge gap following expanded-EEA and to introduce the watertight robust osteoconductive (WRO)-barrier as an alternative durable option. Distinctively, we focused on 10 clinical circumstances. A 3D-skull base-water system model was innovated to investigate the ESBR under realistic conditions. A large-irregular defect (31 × 89 mm) extending from the crista galli to the mid-clivus was achieved. Then, WRO-barrier was fashioned and its tolerance was evaluated under stressful settings, including an exceedingly high (55 cmH2O) pressure, with radiological assessment. Next, the whole WRO-barrier was drilled to examine its practical-safe removal (simulating redo-EEA) and the whole experiment was repeated. Finally, WRO-barrier was kept into place to value its 18-month long-term high-tolerance. Results in all experiments of WRO-barriers were satisfactorily fashioned to conform the geometry of the created defect under realistic circumstances via EEA, tolerated an exceedingly high pressure without evidence of leak even under stressful settings, resisted sudden-elevated pressure, and remained in its position to maintain long-term watertight seal (18 months), efficiently evaluated with neuroimaging and simply removed-and-reconstructed when redo-EEA is needed. In conclusion, WRO-barrier as an osteoconductive watertight robust design for cranial base reconstruction possesses several distinct qualities that might be beneficial for patients with complex skull base tumours.
Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a tumor-specific cell surface antigen often expressed in glioblastoma and has drawn much attention as a possible therapeutic target. We performed immunohistochemistry on histology sections of surgical specimens taken from 67 cases with glioblastoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase-wild type, and evaluated the morphological characteristics and distribution of the EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. We then evaluated the localization of EGFRvIII-expression within the tumor and peritumoral areas. EGFRvIII immunopositivity was detected in 15 specimens taken from 13 patients, including two recurrent specimens taken from the same patient at relapse. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that EGFRvIII-positive cells were present in cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and some showed astrocytic differentiation with multiple fine processes and others did not shown. The EGFRvIII-positive cells were located in cellular areas of the tumor, but not in the invading zone. In the two recurrent cases, EGFRvIII-positive cells were markedly decreased in one case and retained in the other. With regard to overall survival, univariate analysis indicated that EGFRvIII-expression in patients with glioblastoma was not significantly associated with a favorable outcome. Double-labeling immunofluorescence staining of EGFRvIII and GFAP showed that processes of large, well differentiated, GFAP-positive glia extend to and surround less differentiated, EGFRvIII-positive glial cells in cellular areas of tumor. However, in the tumor periphery, EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells were not observed. This finding suggests that EGFRvIII is involved in tumor proliferation, but that invading glioma cells lose their EGFRvIII expression.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological features of osteoporotic burst fractures affecting levels below the second lumbar (middle-low lumbar) vertebrae, and to clarify the appropriate surgical procedure to avoid postoperative complications. Thirty-eight consecutive patients (nine male, 29 female; mean age: 74.8 years; range: 60–86 years) with burst fractures affecting the middle-low lumbar vertebrae who underwent posterior-instrumented fusion were included. Using the Magerl classification system, these fractures were classified into three types: 16 patients with superior incomplete burst fracture (superior-type), 11 patients with inferior incomplete burst fracture (inferior-type) and 11 patients with complete burst fracture (complete-type). The clinical features were investigated for each type, and postoperative complications such as postoperative vertebral collapse (PVC) and instrumentation failure were assessed after a mean follow-up period of 3.1 years (range: 1–8.1 years). All patients suffered from severe leg pain by radiculopathy, except one with superior-type fracture who exhibited cauda equina syndrome. Nineteen of 27 patients with superior- or inferior-type fracture were found to have spondylolisthesis due to segmental instability. Although postoperative neurological status improved significantly, lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis at the fused level deteriorated from the postoperative period to the final follow-up due to postoperative complications caused mainly by PVC (29%) and instrument failure (37%). Posterior-instrumented fusion led to a good clinical outcome; however, a higher incidence of postoperative complications due to bone fragility was inevitable. Therefore, short-segment instrument and fusion with some augumentation techniqus, together with strong osteoporotic medications may be required to avoid such complications.
This study, following Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Treatment 1 and 2 (JR-NET 1 & 2), shows an annual trend of cases including adverse events and clinical outcomes at 30 days after NET. JR-NET3 was registered by 749 cumulative total number of physicians, certified by the Japanese Society of Neuroendovascular Therapy in 166 centers, between 2010 and 2014. Medical information about the patients was anonymized and retrospectively registered through a website. A total of 40,177 patients were recruited, 632 patients were excluded because data of preprocedural status were not available. So we analyzed 39,545 patients retrospectively. The proportion of octogenarians is increasing year-by-year and 14.7% in 2014 compared with 10.4% in 2010. Most frequent target disease is intracranial aneurysm. For the proportion of the treatment of intracranial aneurysm, 50.0% in 2010, but that has decreased to 44.8% in 2014. However, number of procedures were increased from 3150 in 2010 to 3419 in 2014. Although before the positive clinical evidence of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was established, the proportion of endovascular treatment for AIS increased 13.8% in 2014 compared with 6.3% in 2010. The number of patients requiring neuroendovascular treatment in Japan is increasing since 2010–2013, but that declined a little in 2014 caused by study operation suspended at the end of 2013. The outcomes of such therapy are clinically acceptable. Details of each type of treatment will be investigated in sub-analyses of the database.