Whether posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is effective in patients older than 55 years remains questionable because of the high prevalence of adjacent segment disease. We retrospectively investigated early clinical outcomes and radiological changes at upper adjacent disc (UAD) level in such age-group patients who underwent advanced dynamic stabilization (ADS) or PLIF. ADS or PLIF were performed in patients with grade 1 spondylolisthesis or disc degeneration complicated by apparent vacuum phenomenon. All patients suffered from neurological symptoms in lower limbs with/without low back pain. In all, 16 patients (six females; mean age, 69.0 ± 8.5 years) who underwent ADS and 14 patients (seven females; mean age, 67.8 ± 9.3 years) who underwent PLIF were followed-up, and preoperative and postoperative final disc height (DH) and range of motion (ROM) were investigated retrospectively using dynamic radiography at the operated and UAD levels. Clinical data of patients who underwent ADS and PLIF were as follows: postoperative follow-up, 459.3 ± 263.5 and 507.7 ± 288.3 days; preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, 14.4 ± 4.1 and 13.4 ± 4.5; and recovery rate of JOA score, 67.5 ± 18.5 and 50.1 ± 23.4%, respectively. Recovery rate of JOA score in ADS group was significantly high compared to PLIF group (P = 0.044). At UAD level, ROM decreased from 4.7 ± 2.9° preoperatively to 3.6 ± 2.6° postoperatively in the ADS group and increased from 3.4 ± 4.1° preoperatively to 5.6 ± 2.8° postoperatively with significant hypermobility (P = 0.020) in the PLIF group. ADS has the advantage in clinical outcomes even in the postoperative early stage, avoiding the early hypermobility at UAD level, compared to PLIF in patients older than 55 years.
Although carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is an established procedure, technical modifications are required when anatomical features are unusual. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of diagnostic features, surgical management, and outcomes of patients with a twisted carotid bifurcation (TCB). We assessed 108 consecutive patients by cervical carotid echography (CCE) and black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) before they underwent 115 CEA procedures. We classified carotid bifurcation (CB) anatomy based on anteroposterior findings of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) determined by cerebral or three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography as follows. The ICA and ECA ran laterally and medially, respectively, in Type 1, overlapped in Type 2, and the ICA and ECA ran medially and laterally, respectively, in Type 3. We also classified the patients according to whether or not they had a TCB and compared their diagnostic findings, clinical characteristics, and surgical outcomes. The numbers of patients with Types 1, 2, and 3 were 74 (64.4%), 32 (27.8%), and 9 (7.8%), respectively, and 13 (11.3%) with a TCB included four patients with Type 2 and all nine patients with Type 3. The appearance of Type 3 differed from that of the other two types on CCE and BB-MR images. After correcting the anatomical location of a TCB, surgical duration and adverse event rates did not significantly differ between patients with and without a TCB. Patients with a TCB could safely undergo CEA after correcting the ICA to the normal position.
This study investigated the long-term outcomes of patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade V aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent early aneurysm repair. We evaluated consecutive patients with WFNS grade V aneurysmal SAH from April 2010 to March 2015 who underwent aneurysm repair within 72 h after onset. We assessed the functional outcomes at discharge and 3 years after onset using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The primary outcome was defined as a favorable functional outcome (mRS ≤2). We identified 145 patients with grade V SAH during the study period. Of these, 44 patients (19 males and 25 females; median age, 64 years; range, 24–79 years) met the inclusion criteria. For aneurysm repair, surgical clipping and coiling were performed in 40 (90.9%) and 4 (9.1%) patients, respectively. Although no patient had a favorable functional outcome at discharge, 11 (25.0%) patients had a favorable functional outcome at the end of follow-up. The number of patients with a favorable outcome significantly increased during the first year (P = 0.012) and during the follow-up period (P <0.001). Patients who underwent active rehabilitation had significant improvement. Our study showed that one-fourth of the patients who underwent early aneurysm repair with WFNS grade V SAH achieved a mRS score of ≤2 over a 3-year period. It might be important to consider age and rehabilitation for better clinical outcomes. Larger studies are required to adequately assess the long-term functional outcomes and other multi-faceted prognoses.
In chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) patients, motor functions usually recover quickly after burr-hole surgery; however, in a rare case, the hemiparesis showed poor improvement after surgery. In that case, investigation of cerebral infarctions is important. Among the 284 CSDH patients with motor weakness, magnetic resonance image (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) were acquired in 82 patients before surgery when the hemiparesis progressed rapidly. Small lacunar infarction was identified on the hematoma side in five cases; all were older than 80 years with hypertension, and diabetes mellitus had been diagnosed in two. In all the five patients (100%), MRA demonstrated a downward or upward shift of the M1 portion of the middle cerebral artery on the hematoma side, where the perforating arteries originate. Conversely, only 4 CSDH patients (5.2%) without lacunar infarction demonstrated M1 downward shift. The risk factors of lacunar infarction were high in the five detected cases; however, distortion, twisting, or elongation of the lenticulostriate arteries might be a cause of the lacunar infarctions, rather than the formation of lipohyalinosis or microatheroma in the arteries. Therefore, anti-platelet treatment might not be necessary for CSDH-inducing lacunar infarction. The lacunar infarctions caused by CSDH were small, the patients’ hemiparesis was mild, a prognosis of all the patients was good, and they recovered well from the motor weakness after physical rehabilitation. MR examinations before surgery are recommended for CSDH patients especially when a patient complains of sudden onset or rapid deterioration of motor weakness.
The factors influencing the outcomes of mild/moderate acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) are still unclear. Retrospective analyses were performed to identify such factors. The medical records of all patients who were admitted to Saiseikai Shiga Hospital with mild (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score of 14–15) or moderate (GCS score of 9–13) ASDH between April 2008 and March 2017 were reviewed. Comparisons between the patients who exhibited favorable and poor outcomes were performed. Then, independent factors that contributed to poor outcomes were identified via logistic regression analyses. A total of 266 patients with a mean age of 70.2 were included in this study. The most common concomitant injuries were subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs; 56.8%). The patients’ Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from 16 to 75 (median: 21). The 66 moderate ASDH patients exhibited significantly higher frequencies of surgery and mortality (24.2% and 13.6%, respectively) than the 200 mild ASDH patients (8.0% and 4.5%, respectively). The factors associated with poor outcomes were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06) and the ISS (OR: 1.24) in the mild ASDH patients, and older age (OR: 1.09) and the higher ISS (OR: 1.15) in the moderate group, too.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. COVID-19 was initially detected in Wuhan, China, in late 2019, and has now rapidly spread worldwide. Departments of Neurosurgery are required to employ an acute response against this pandemic. In this article, we discuss the important factors that neurosurgeons need to consider when managing their departments during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have summarized perspectives of the articles published on COVID-19, as well as the suggestions from neurosurgical societies in highly infected regions. We have proposed a seven-point checklist for neurosurgery departments: (1) networking among medical institutions; (2) coordinating teams within each institution; (3) prevention of infection within the department; (4) perioperative management; (5) triage; (6) changing subspecialty management protocols; and (7) psychological support for medical staff and patients.