Bevacizumab (BEV) is a key anti-angiogenic agent used in the treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether cytoreductive surgery prior to treatment with BEV contributes to prolongation of survival for patients with recurrent GBM. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcomes of 124 patients with recurrent GBM who were initially treated with the Stupp protocol between 2006 and 2019. Given that BEV has only been available in Japan since 2013, we grouped the patients into two groups according to the time of first recurrence: the pre-BEV group (N = 51) included patients who had recurrence before BEV approval, and the BEV group (N = 73) included patients with recurrence after BEV approval. The overall survival after first recurrence (OS-R) was analyzed according to the treatment strategy. Among 124 patients, 27 patients (19.4%) received cytoreductive surgery. There were nine cases in the pre-BEV group and 18 cases in the BEV group. Although the mean extent of resection for both groups was almost equal, OS-R was significantly different. The median OS-R was 8.1 m in the pre-BEV group and 16.3 m in the BEV group (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed that the unavailability of BEV postoperatively (P = 0.03) and decreasing performance status by surgery (P = 0.01) were significant poor prognostic factors for survival after surgery. With the advent of BEV, cytoreductive surgery might provide superior survival benefit at the time of GBM recurrence, especially in cases where surgery can be performed without deteriorating the patient’s condition.
Internal trapping with coils is an established treatment of symptomatic large non-branching thrombosed fusiform vertebral artery aneurysms (VAA). However, when perforators arise near the aneurysm neck, parent artery occlusion has a high risk of causing medullary infarction. As an alternative treatment, we performed short-segment internal trapping of the artery using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and coils (bird’s nest trapping). Before treatment, perianeurysmal perforators are carefully detected using high-resolution three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA). Double microcatheters are advanced to the distal portion of the aneurysm through a balloon guiding catheter where coils are deployed without tight packing. Then, NBCA is injected into the coil mass, taking care to preserve perforators and significant branches. The same maneuver is repeated in the proximal portion of the aneurysm. Coil placement is avoided within the middle of the aneurysm; however, if necessary, only a small number of coils are placed to prevent worsening of mass effect. Two quinquagenarian males presented with a large thrombosed fusiform VAA that caused symptoms due to mass effect. In each case, perforators arose from the parent artery and short-segment internal trapping with NBCA and coils was performed. Symptoms improved after treatment and follow-up imaging confirmed aneurysm shrinkage with no long-time recurrence. In symptomatic large fusiform VAAs where the distance from the lesion to important perforators is extremely short, internal trapping using a combination of NBCA and coils can be more useful than conventional internal trapping.
In the skull tumor surgery that requires a large cranial reconstruction, economical one-time surgery is challenging. Calcium phosphate paste (CPC) alone is not applied in the large defect. Other plastic fill-in materials have each drawback. Ready-made implants are costly. The authors present additional technique of CPC cranioplasty combined with mainstay autologous grafts for a large cranial defect. The combination of split rib grafts was augmented by CPC. Tenons were placed for the stability of grafts. Our newly additional technique is that CPC is filled in the small adjacent spaces of autografts, not applied as the simple on-lay graft. We introduced this method to a 57-year-old gentleman with left parietal expansile skull tumor. The aesthetics of the patient has been satisfactory, and there were no complaints about pain in the graft site. In the follow-up period of 8 years, both autologous grafts and CPC were well maintained without marked resorption. This patient could work as a farmer in this period. Our methods fulfilled the requirements of aesthetics and in-situ plasticity for a larger cranial defect.
Burr hole surgery in the emergency room can be lifesaving for patients with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). In the first part of this study, a strategy of combined burr hole surgery, a period of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and then craniotomy was examined for safe and effective treatment of ASDH. Since 2012, 16 patients with severe ASDH with indications for burr hole surgery were admitted to Kenwakai Otemachi Hospital. From 2012 to 2016, craniotomy was performed immediately after burr hole surgery (emergency [EM] group, n = 10). From 2017, an ICP sensor was placed before burr hole surgery. After a period for correction of traumatic coagulopathy, craniotomy was performed when ICP increased (elective [EL] group, n = 6). Patient background, bleeding tendency, intraoperative blood transfusion, and outcomes were compared between the groups. In the second part of the study, ICP was measured before and after burr hole surgery in seven patients (including two of the six in the EL group) to assess the effect of this surgery. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) were significantly prolonged after craniotomy in the EM group, but not in the EL group, and the EM group tended to require a higher intraoperative transfusion volume. The rate of good outcomes was significantly higher in the EL group, and ICP was significantly decreased after burr hole surgery. These results suggest the value of burr hole surgery followed by ICP monitoring in patients with severe ASDH. Craniotomy can be performed safely using this method, and this may contribute to improved outcomes.
Few studies have reviewed the roles of perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the histopathological examination of meningiomas. We analyzed the relationships between radiological findings on perfusion MR imaging and pathological characteristics such as origin of the tumor, mitotic activity, pathological subtype, and perifocal edema formation. The subjects were 21 surgical cases of meningioma preoperatively evaluated by perfusion MR imaging. A region of interest (ROI) was set inside of the tumor, and perifocal edema of the same size, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) on perfusion MR and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging were analyzed. These radiological data were evaluated in comparison with histopathological characteristics. On perfusion MR imaging, the average ratio of CBV against the contralateral side was 6.43 (1.13–20.0) and that of CBF was 7.73 (1.34–11.3). There was no significant relationship with perfusion MR imaging data, tumor volume, or perifocal edema volume. However, the large peritumoral edema group often had a higher CBV and CBF than the non-large peritumoral edema group. The skull base group had a significantly higher CBV and lower signal intensity on DW images than the non-skull base group. Signal intensity on DW images was higher in grade II or III than in grade I. Perfusion MR imaging data revealed that the higher ratio of peritumoral edema against tumor size was associated with higher blood flow and blood volume under intratumoral circulatory conditions, and that skull base meningioma had a higher blood volume than non-skull base meningioma.
Transforaminal full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy (TELD) can be performed under local anesthesia. However, there have been no reports on risk factors for a change in vital signs or the need for additional medications to maintain adequate analgesia during this procedure. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for additional intravenous medication during TELD under local anesthesia. The following factors were retrospectively evaluated in 113 consecutive patients who underwent TELD under local anesthesia at our institution: demographic characteristics, radiological features at the intervertebral disc level, distance between the superior articular process and the exiting nerve root, height of the intervertebral disc, height of the bulging disc, height of the intervertebral foramen, and distance from the insertion site to the spinous process on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans of the lumbar spine. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the need for additional drugs. In all, 23 cases (20.4%) required additional intraoperative medications because of hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia, or pain. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age (partial regression coefficient 0.05, p = 0.02) and bulging disc height (partial regression coefficient −0.7, p = 0.003) influenced the need for additional drugs. There were significant associations of need for additional intravenous medication with older age (>62 years) and a smaller bulging disc height (<8.2 mm). Patients with these factors require close monitoring for changes in vital signs or increasing pain when performing TELD under local anesthesia and may need additional intravenous medication.
This study investigated the networks originating from frontal eye fields (FEFs) using electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Seven patients with intractable focal epilepsy, in which FEFs were identified by electrical cortical stimulation, were enrolled in this study. Electric stimulation at 50 Hz was applied to the electrodes for functional mapping. DTI was used to identify the subcortical fibers originating from the FEFs with two regions of interests (ROIs) in the FEF and contralateral paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). FEFs were found in the superior precentral sulcus (pre-CS) in six patients and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in three patients. DTI detected fibers connecting FEFs and contralateral PPRFs, passing within the internal capsule. The fibers were located close to the lateral antero-superior border of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and medial posterior border of the globus pallidus internus (GPi). This study found the characteristic subcortical networks of the FEF. These tracts should be noted to prevent complications of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN or GPi.
More complex aneurysms can be treated by coil embolization with neck-bridge stent assistance. However, concerns about postprocedural ischemic or hemorrhagic complications remain. In this study, we assessed the long-term durability after introduction of neck-bridge stent in the context of coil embolization for unruptured aneurysm by comparing re-treatment and neurological events between the pre-stent and stent eras. Unruptured aneurysms treated by coil embolization between April 2005 and May 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. We divided cases into two groups: the pre-stent era and the stent era. The cumulative rate of re-treatment and neurological events were assessed and compared. During the period, 177 aneurysms were treated in the pre-stent era and 354 aneurysms were treated in the stent era. The median follow-up was 55 months. In the stent era, the dome/neck (D/N) ratio was significantly lower (P <0.001) and the number of aneurysms located at the posterior circulation was higher (P <0.001). A stent was used in 31.92% of cases in the stent era. The cumulative rate of re-treatment was significantly higher in the pre-stent era than it was in the stent era in univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.008, P = 0.008, respectively). The cumulative rate of neurological events was not significantly different between the two groups. The re-treatment rate has been improved without increasing neurological complications after introduction of the neck-bridge stent.
The clearance system in the brain is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to prove the presence of the “glymphatic system” in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Spectral data of the brain white matter were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with hydrocephalic dementia and used to measure intracerebral metabolites, including macromolecules (MMs) and lipids. Data were transferred from the MRS scanners to a workstation, and metabolites were quantified with the spectrogram-based eddy current method and water scaling.
MM levels were significantly higher in patients with a slow gait and executive dysfunction due to normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) than in asymptomatic volunteers (p <0.01). In contrast, the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) level was significantly lower in patients with executive dysfunction than in asymptomatic volunteers (p <0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in metabolites, including alanine, aspartate, creatine, γ-amino butyric acid, D-glucose, glutamine, glutamate, glycerophosphorylcholine, phosphorylcholine, lactate, myoinositol, N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, scyllo-inositol, taurine, creatine methylene, and guanine, in the centrum semiovale between patients with NPH and asymptomatic volunteers.
We quantitatively evaluated cerebral metabolites, particularly in the centrum semiovale, with MRS. In the brain of patients with a slow gait and executive dysfunction due to NPH, MRS revealed significantly higher MM levels and lower NAA levels compared to healthy volunteers. Therefore, it may be concluded that the patients have a dysfunctional glymphatic system in the brain.
It is important to assess the cerebral arteries near the clip after cerebral aneurysm clipping. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography has side effects of contrast medium and radiation exposure. Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) is a fast and non-invasive method, but clip-induced artifact limits the assessment around the clip. Recently, 3 tesla MRA with ultrashort echo time called SILENT MRA (GE Healthcare Life Sciences, UK) has been reported to have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. We herein present consecutive 19 cerebral aneurysm patients treated by clipping and evaluated using SILENT MRA. The 19 patients (15 women and 4 men) underwent TOF-MRA and SILENT MRA during the same scan session. Two neurosurgeons independently assessed the visibility of the mother vessel at the clipping site in TOF-MRA and SILENT MRA. We also investigated the factors related to visibility in SILENT MRA. All patients' mother vessels were not described in TOF-MRA, and that of 16 patients (84%) were described in SILENT MRA. Overall agreement was 100% in the two neurosurgeons, and the fixed marginal kappa = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.36–1.00). Univariate analysis revealed that larger aneurysm dome and long clip blade length contributed to the visibility of the mother vessel in SILENT MRA. (p = 0.023, 0.007, each). In conclusion, SILENT MRA can be applied for the assessment of the arteries and aneurysm neck remnants near the clip. Using clips with long blade and ligation with its tip would be related to the visibility of the mother vessels in SILENT MRA.