Tomato fruits were harvested at mature green stage and were stored in air at 4°, 20°, 33°C, and room temperature. The storage life of tomato fruits were estimated on fresh weight, titrable acidity and contents of sugar, ascorbic acid, pectic substance, lycopene, β-carotene and chlorophyll at intervals during storage under various conditions. Fruits stored at room temperature showed normal ripening associated with coloring and softening. Fruits stored at 4°C did not show loss of chlorophyll, hydrolysis of pectic substance and synthesis of lycopene, and physiological injury was observed during storage. In fruits stored at 33°C, the contents of chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were decrease, and the synthesis of lycopene but that of β-carotene was repressed. Also, normal ripening was inhibited, though physiological injury and putrefaction were not observed during storage. Fruits previously stored at 33βC for several days and afterwards ripened at room temperature caused the lycopene synthesis, and storage life was extended to a long period. The maximum storage life was about 200 days.
Male rats weighing about 120g were killed after 1, 2, 4 and 10 days on a protein-free diet, and in vitro synthesis of protein was measured by the incorporation of 14C-glycine into protein of isolated soleus muscle and liver slices. The rate of muscle protein synthesis fell rapidly to about 40% of the initial control value until the 2 nd day, and then was reduced less rapidly to about 25% of the control value on the 10 th day. Muscle protein synthesis rate per unit of RNA dropped suddenly to about 60% of the control value on the 1 st day and then was reduced gradually to about 50% and 40% of the control value on the 4 th and 10 th day respectively. In the liver, the rate of protein synthesis increased to the 2_??_3 times of the initial control value on the 1 st and 2 nd day, and thereafter began to decline, but was still higher on the 10 th day than the control value. These alterations in the liver were caused mainly by the changes in the incorporation activity per unit of RNA. By comparing these present results on 120g rats with our previous results on 200g and 400g rats, it was suggested that muscle protein synthesis decreased more quickly and more greatly in the protein deficiency as rats were younger.
Ceramide was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, and its constituting fatty acids and long chain bases were analyzed. The major fatty acids were lignoceric, 2-hydroxylignoceric and 2, 3-dihydroxylignoceric acid, especially the latter two. The dominating long chain base was phytosphingosine.
Intact cells of Bacillus colistinus which are resistant to lysozyme could be made more sensitive to the enzyme by the pretreatment with trypsin. After trypsin pretreatment cells could be converted into spheroplasts by incubation with lysozyme and ethylenedi-aminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the presence of sucrose and magnesium ion as the osmotic stabilizer in atmosphere of nitrogen, but those obtained in atmosphere of air were unstable. Spheroplasting of trypsin-treated cells by lysozyme without EDTA resulted in relatively much residue of bacilli and magnesium ion was effective on stabilization of spheroplasts induced by lysozyme and EDTA. When the organism was grown with cycloserine, lysis of the cell and in the presence of sucrose the conversion into spheroplasts were observed.
We attempted to investigate the essential oil of “Seto-mint” (one of Mentha gentilis L. grown in Tokai area) which contains (+)-pulegone as a main component. In this paper, we wish to inform the confirmation of the following new terpenic alcohols isolated from the essential oil; (-)-(1 R:3 R)-3-hydroxy-4 (8)-p-menthene (2), (+)-1 R-8-hydroxy-3-p-menthene (3) and (-)-1 R-8-hydroxy-4-p-menthen-3-one (4). The contents of these constituents of the essential oil in this plant have been found seasonally variable and biosynthetic processes in vivo were shown as Scheme 1. It seems that (+)-1 R-pulegone (1) is reduced to afford 2. This yields 3 on isomerization with a minor organic acid in the plant, while 4 as one of the above related substances may also be derived from 1.
Triose reductone-2-phosphate (TR-2-P) was prepared by the reaction of triose reductone (TR) with a new phosphorylating agent, 2-methylthio-4 H-1, 3, 2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide (MTBO) in the presence of n-propylamine. Its chemical structure was determined by elemental analysis, NMR spectrum and UV absorption spectrum. TR-2-P was more stable than TR in all regions of pH, especially in neutral medium, but its reducing power decreased to 1/12 of TR's. From UV absorption spectra and paper chromatography, it was certified that condensation products were formed by the reaction of TR-2-P with some amino acids such as glutamic acid or histidine. The interaction of TR-2-P and DNA also investigated. It was elucidated that TR-2-P brought about only single strand scission and its DNA-splitting activity was weaker than that of TR, suggesting that DNA scissions with reductones were caused through the reductone structures such as endiol or enaminol group.
The viscosity of soy sauce, model solution containing the purified acidic polysaccharide isolated from soy sauce, non-dialysable fractions of soy sauce, enzymatic hydrolysates of soybean proteins, and some related samples, were estimated. In spite of its small content (0.7%) in soy sauce, the contribution of the acidic polysaccharide on the viscosity of soy sauce was found to amount up to about 20%.
In order to isolate n-paraffin assimilating yeasts grown at 37°C from soils, three isolating methods were carried out and compared. They were plate culture method, conventional enrichment culture method using shaking flask and method of enrichment culture using 20l jar fermenter in which 50 samples of soil were added simultaneously. In plate culture method, soils were dried in room temperature and scattered on plate and yeast colonies grown on the plate were isolated. Although it was comparatively easy to isolate n-paraffin assimilating yeasts by the plate culture method by which 39 strains were obtained, the cell growth of the yeasts in an n-paraffin medium was generally poor. By enrichment culture method using shaking flask, 234 strains were isolated. Some of them showed either good or poor growth. However, many of them gave moderate cell production in the n-paraffin medium. Enrichment culture method using jar fermenter was found to be the best for isolating yeasts assimilating n-paraffin strongly. Eleven strains were isolated by this method and all of them showed good cell growth.