Baker's yeast is exposed to various environmental stresses during its production and bread making. To clarify genes crucial for tolerance to these stresses, we performed genome-wide screenings of mutants that showed sensitivity or tolerance to stresses using a complete collection of deletion mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These screenings revealed genes crucial for tolerance to each stress. It is important to note that genes involved in the vacuolar acidification were indispensable for tolerance to multiple stresses. We applied the results of the screenings to select target genes for molecular breeding of stress-tolerant yeasts. Using so-called self-cloning technique, the target gene was disrupted or overexpressed in a derivative of an industrial baker's yeast strain. Results of the genetic modification suggested that this strategy was appropriate for breeding of stress-tolerant yeasts.
紅茶を対象としてAmplified DNA Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP）により品種の識別・同定を試みた．実験には，からべに，べにふうき，いずみ，Z-1，べにひかり，べにほまれの7品種の茶生葉より製造した紅茶と，市販されているダージリン，アッサム，ケニア，ジャワ紅茶を，そして日本の緑茶用31品種の茶生葉を用いて実験した．AFLPの選択プライマーペアーにはEcoR I-ACA/Mse I-CTGとEcoR I-ACT/Mse I-CTCを用いた場合に，AFLP法によるべにふうきを含めて品種の識別・同定が可能であることが認められた．