A major use of rice is as cooked rice, which is a staple food in Japan. Furthermore, rice is also used as a raw material for various food items such as rice crackers, rice flour and sake by making use of its characteristics. However, the recent decrease in rice consumption has led to strong demands for the expanded use of rice. Therefore, research has been undertaken into various developments in the use of rice flour in Niigata Prefecture over the past 30 years. Two milling methods to make rice into fine rice flour have been established, the ‘two-step milling method” and the ‘enzyme-treated milling method”. These two methods have resulted in the use of rice flours in place of wheat flour in the production of foods such as breads and noodles. Rice flours produced by the two-step milling method and the enzyme-treated milling method have been used in western-style confectionery, as well as the production of breads and noodles, respectively. Niigata Prefecture holds the patents to these methods, which are used by 8 companies in Niigata and other prefectures. As for the processed food items from rice flour, two types of noodles have come into the market. Rice noodles are made only from rice flour, and therefore contain no wheat flour or gluten. The other type of noodle is made with koshinomenjiman, a high-amylose rice variety bred in Niigata Prefecture. This has the characteristic quality of an elastic texture, and has therefore been brought to market. These technologies are used as the basis for the Rice flour 10% Project (‘R10 Project’), which is a policy of Niigata Prefecture. This project aims to replace the use of wheat flour with rice flour by more than 10%.