To increase the market niche for scallop-based food products, we developed a high-quality scallop flake food and a new type of fermented sushi using boiled scallop (izushi). Scallop flake food comprises heated adductor muscles that are shredded into coarse fibers. Scallop flake food is a useful material for various culinary preparations, and its processing method is quite simple. Such foods are expected to become popular. In the present study, conditions for thawing frozen adductor muscle, heating adductor muscle, breaking up adductor muscle fibers, and sterilizing scallop flake food were improved. We finally established a processing method for high-quality scallop flake food. Izushi is one of the traditional fermented foods consumed in the Hokkaido and Tohoku districts. However, izushi made from scallop adductor muscle has not yet been developed. One of the reasons for this is that the weak texture and taste of scallop adductor muscle are not considered suitable for izushi preparation. We therefore investigated conditions for pickling and adjusting the weight of scallop adductor muscle during the fermentation process, and found ways to improve both the texture and taste of izushi. Our innovative processes will enable novel, marketable food products based on scallop adductor muscle.
小麦粉生地で発生するスペック（ホシ，黒点）の抑制成分を各種食品素材よりスクリーニングした結果，焙煎米糠抽出物（RRBE）にスペック抑制作用を見出した．RRBE，コウジ酸（KA），L-アスコルビン酸（AA）について，小麦粉生地のスペック抑制効果を調べたところ，AAにはスペック抑制効果が見られず，RRBEとKAはほぼ同等のスペック抑制能力を有していた．L-チロシンを含む小麦粉スラリーの変色抑制効果について色差計により評価したところ，KAが最もL値変化の抑制効果が強く，次いでAAで，RRBEは最も抑制効果が弱かった．チロシナーゼとペルオキシダーゼを小麦ふすまより部分精製し，両酵素によるメラニン合成活性を調べた結果，ペルオキシダーゼのみではメラニン合成活性が検出されず，チロシナーゼと共存した場合にのみペルオキシダーゼの濃度に比例してメラニンの合成が促進された．両酵素に対するRRBE, KA, AAの阻害活性を比較したところ，RRBEの阻害活性が最も弱い結果となった．RRBEは酸化酵素阻害活性が弱いにも関わらず，KAと同等のスペック抑制効果があることから，スペック抑制には阻害活性の強弱以外の要因があることが示唆された．
Japan is one of the top consumer countries in the world of chicken eggs at almost one egg per person per day. Chicken eggs contain eight essential amino acids in an ideal balance, giving an amino acid score that is as high as that for milk and beef (100) and the biological value that exceeds that of the latter foods (94). Furthermore, among animal-source foods, eggs are relatively rich in unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals such as phosphorus, calcium and iron. Despite these beneficial attributes, many consumers are worried about the relationship between chicken egg consumption and heart disease since chicken eggs are a high cholesterol food. Human studies in Japan reveal that consumption of egg yolk for 4 weeks did not result in an elevation of serum cholesterol level and there was no direct relationship between frequency of egg consumption and a risk of myocardial infarction in a 10-year follow-up study of 90,000 Japanese subjects. Rat studies provide evidence of the hypocholesterolemic action of egg yolk phospholipids and egg white proteins. Furthermore, feeding egg yolk phospholipids to rats with brain injuries and senescence-accelerated mice resulted in enhanced learning ability. These results indicate that chicken egg is an attractive food from the aspects of health promotion and nutritional function.
It is known that eggs and egg components are frequently used for foods with high palatability; however, the effects of egg-derived molecules on emotional behavior have been largely unknown. We used the elevated plus-maze test in mice to investigate whether peptide derived from ovalbumin, a major egg white protein, has anxiolytic-like activity. We then found that a pentapeptide released from ovalbumin by trypsin exhibits potent anxiolytic-like activity with intraperitoneal and oral administration at a low dose comparable to diazepam, a general anxiolytic drug. Indeed, tryptic digest of ovalbumin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity after oral administration. In this review, we summarize the egg-derived molecules having anxiolytic-like activity. In addition, the mechanism underlying the anxiolytic-like activity of egg white-derived peptide was compared with previously described anxiolytic molecules.