This study was conducted in order to reveal the weak luminescence phenomena, such as spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission, chemiluminescence and Photo-Stimulated Luminescence (PSL), in food materials. Additionally, new food-quality evaluation methods using weak luminescence were developed as screening methods. Spontaneous ultra weak photoemission from potato chips, rice grain and roasted sesame oil were measured using photon counting and imaging techniques. Ultra weak photon emissions from the food materials were related to quality changes. Chemiluminescent reagents have advantages in improving emission levels and enabling functional selectivity, such as toward reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and so on. Sake quality and buck wheat antioxidative property could analyze using chemiluminescence. The PSL method provides a rapid and remarkably sensitive technique for identifying irradiated foods that contain minerals, such as spices and dried vegetables. A novel PSL method that detects irradiated foods, based on time-dependent intensity decline, was developed. These weak luminescence techniques might use in quality analysis for food processing and distribution.