The current status of genome sequencing projects for hexaploid wheat and its relatives is reviewed. Wheat genome sequencing has become more feasible following the introduction of various techniques that reduce the complexity of its genome. Aneuploid stocks, namely ditelosomics, allowed us to sort individual chromosome arms by flow-sorting. Chromosome arm-specific DNA samples were prepared from the sorted chromosome arms for sequencing. The assemblies of the shotgun sequencing of the arm-specific DNA samples were published in 2004, where hypothetical wheat gene sequences can be found. This review is a milestone publication for wheat science that marks the dawn of the post-genomic era. I summarized the available molecular marker techniques for wheat.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important food crop in the world, as it is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. Rice grain quality largely determines its market price and consumer acceptance. Rice grain quality is determined by a set of complex traits encompassing a wide range of characteristics including processing suitability of rice flour and cooking characteristics of cooked rice grain. Decoding the rice genome sequence provides a distinct advantage in the isolation of important genes associated with grain quality and cooking characteristics of rice. Recently, we identified one of the genes responsible for biosynthesis of storage protein in rice endosperm and a genetic factor in the eating quality of cooked rice grain. These genetic factors could be exploited for the development of novel rice cultivars with high grain quality.