This study demonstrated the vasorelaxation effect of small peptides and their underlying mechanisms as a novel function of blood pressure-lowering peptides. In particular, the small peptide Trp-His elicits not only a vasorelaxation effect in isolated aorta but also an anti-atherosclerotic effect in vivo. Viewing the composition of food products as a mixture of many components, the synergistic effect on vasorelaxation by the combination of multi-food compounds was also investigated. In this review article, we summarize the aforementioned beneficial effects of food compounds on vascular functions as well as the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of these bioactive peptides, clarified by using LC-MS and/or MALDI-MS imaging analyses.
Microencapsulation of flavor is an important technology whereby liquid flavor is enclosed in a carrier matrix by spray drying. In this review, the flavor release from spray-dried powder is discussed. Flavor release from the spray-dried powder could be correlated using the Avrami (Weibull) equation. In the analysis of flavor release from the powder, the unknown parameters were: the diffusion coefficient of flavor in the matrix, Dout, diffusion coefficient of flavor in the flavor droplet, Din, and mass transfer coefficient from the powder, κL, which were estimated to fit d-limonene release behavior by using the partial differential equation model. First, the parameters were determined by fitting with the experimental database, assuming that the release in the matrix was the rate limiting step (Din»Dout). The diffusion model could explain well the release characteristics of encapsulated d-limonene. For the release of encapsulated d-limonene from the spray-dried powder at 51% RH and 50°C, diffusion of flavor inside the matrix was the rate-limiting step. The encapsulated flavor powder with vacuoles showed greater release than powder without vacuole formation.
Bioencapsulation of food additives or functional ingredients aims to protect sensitive core materials during storage and consumption, transport them to designated positions in the gastrointestinal tract, and release them at appropriate rates to maximize bioavailability. Bioencapsulation systems need to be designed with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials, and the physicochemical processes involved in matrix formation are crucial for realizing expected functionality. From an engineering perspective, it is important to develop a processing method for obtaining products with desirable features. The author has previously reported that a freezing step represents an interesting processing tool for controlling the properties of an encapsulation system. During freezing, the growth of ice crystals in an aqueous solution results in a cryoconcentrated (freeze-concentrated) phase that is controlled by phase equilibrium. The author’s idea is to control matrix formation in the cryoconcentrated phase for optimizing encapsulation systems. This review summarizes this concept and future scope.