In this study, processing conditions for hydrolyzing isoflavone glycoside derived from soybean were examined for miso production. The result showed that the amount of isoflavone aglycones in Miso was related to β-glucosidase activity in Koji measured with isoflavone glycosides (genistin) as the substrate, but it was not related to the enzyme activity determined using a synthetic substrate, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. In a large-scale production test at four brewing companies, the amount of isoflavone aglycones in miso increased when using Koji made from Tane-koji (Koji mold spore), which was bred and selected specifically to produce β-glucosidease. For further improvement, it is necessary to investigate factors other than β-glucosidase and to determine optimal conditions.
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of resistant starch (RS) included in red kidney beans to utilize as health functional material and to develop a processing technique for functional snacks. As for the characteristics of RS included in red kidney beans, RS decreased during the confectionery process, and it was suggested that the processing conditions (heating temperature, heating time, etc.) influence the decrease of RS. The results of an experiment on processing conditions showed that heating temperature, heating time and moisture had a great effect on the decrease of RS. There was a tendency for RS to decrease more with higher temperatures, longer heating times and greater moisture content. In addition, RS was significantly increased by preserving heated beans at low temperatures of less than 4°C. In the method of producing baked snacks, conditions to restrain the decrease of RS and hold RS to more than 14% were achieved using the above results. The decrease of RS was restrained in both a cookie and sponge cake that were produced using the above conditions, and the cookie RS exceeded 14%. Autoclave treatment for beans at 121°Cfor 60 minutes could increase RS for functional food, and it revealed the effectiveness of high-temperature heat-moisture treatment with respect to the increase in RS. This study clarified the conditions to restrain the decrease of RS and a processing technique for functional snacks was developed using those conditions.
Imitation cheese is made using milk products or vegetable protein and fat, and can be classified broadly as filled cheese, made using the same processes as natural cheese from liquid milk, and analog cheese, made from the heating and dissolution of powder and fat. Imitation cheese was developed as a substitute for more expensive natural cheeses in the 1970s, but in recent years, plant-derived analog cheese has been developed for allergy elimination diets or veganism［Please check that this conveys your intended meaning.］, and new markets are already emerging in other countries. This review focuses on analog cheese and describes differences in the production methods and characteristics of each type. The future of analog cheese in Japan is also discussed.