This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of early postnatal maternal separation stress on the age-dependent fluctuations in the expression levels of neurotrophic factor ligands and receptors in the developing cerebellum. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h each day during postnatal days (PND) 10 to 15. The expression level of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and type-1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) were evaluated in the cerebellum on PND16, 20, 30, and 60 with real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of cerebellar BDNF in maternally separated rats were increased on PND16, while the other variables showed no significant alterations at any of the time points examined. However, the effects of an identical maternal separation on the cerebral cortex were previously reported to be completely different. These results indicate regional differences in the responses of neurotrophic factor ligands/receptors between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Given that neurotrophic factors play important roles in brain development, alterations in these factors may interrupt normal brain development and ultimately, lead to functional disruptions.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) plays a critical functional role in the ciliary body and retina for maintenance of microenvironment. With immunohistochemistry using orbital contents from 8 human fetuses (12-16 weeks of gestation), we examined expressions of CAs isozymes-1, 2, 3, 6, 7 9 and 12 and found strong reactivity of CA9 in extra-ocular fibrous tissues in the anterior and posterior eyes. CA9 is known to express in the fetal joint cartilage to maintain pH against hypoxia: actually, in the present specimens, the SO pulley and its tendon was strongly positive for CA9. The CA9-positive anterior fibrous tissues were positive for smooth muscle actin and connected the orbital aspect of the 4 rectus muscle with the palpebral conjunctiva, whereas the posterior tissue was negative for smooth muscle actin and corresponded to the lateral insertion tendon of the orbitalis muscle. The anterior CA9-positve tissues seemed to correspond to the primitive form of the sleeve and pulley system. Any of matrix substances (collagen types I and II, aggrecan, versican, fibronectin, tenascin and hyaluronan) displayed a distribution pattern specific for the CA9-positive fibrous tissues. Therefore, whether or not CA9 was positive in the fibrous tissue seemed not to depend on the tissue components such as the extracellular matrix and intermediate filaments but to suggest a stressful condition such as hypoxia, unsuitable base balance and/or under mechanical stress.
Hypothalamic terminals were investigated in the rat posterior pituitary (PP). Injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and co-injection of WGA-HRP with Rab3A-siRNA were made into the hypothalamus, respectively. Additional injection of WGA-HRP was made into the hypothalamus in the animals exposed to ethanol. These injections resulted in heavy labeling of fibers exclusively confined to the PP. Ultrastructural observations showed terminals, fibers, pituicytes, capillaries and vascular spaces in the PP. Although the majority of terminals were observed to contain large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) and HRP-reaction products (HRP-RPs), exocytosis of LDCVs in close proximity to cell membrane was not found. Interestingly, a few terminals showed alteration of cell membrane called “apocrine-like structure” containing LDCV and RP. The narrow neck portion of the structure gave the appearance that it may have been in some stage of separating from terminals. Other remarkable feature was that terminals occasionally reveal the structure of “leakage” of RP discharged into vascular spaces crossing cell membrane. Such hormone-releasing mechanism might be involved in one of “diacrine-like secretion”. In the present study secretion-related structures of hypothalamic terminals in the PP are quite different from normal vesicular exocytosis.
Due to author’s request, words in this article are corrected as follows:
The word should be ‘hyperalgesia’ rather than ‘hyperplasia’ for the first sentence of summary on page 137, line 48 and 51 of left-hand column on page 143.
In addition, the name of the organization should be ‘the Animal Research Committee of Osaka Dental University’ rather than ‘the Ethics Review Board of Osaka Dental University’ for line 25-26 of left-hand column on page 138.