In this paper, we examine the determinants of subjective social status. This topic used to be discussed extensively in the U.S., although few consider the present state of social status. We focus on the sequence of temporal change in Japan in comparison with that in the U.S. Thus, we apply a multigroup MIMIC model to the longitudinal dataset from both societies. We feature subjective social status as the dependent variable. This is measured as a latent concept by three indicators: class identification, self-ranked social position, and satisfaction with standard of living. As independent variables, we examine the general aspects of objective social status: education, occupation, and household income. Significance tests of the model fit indicate that objective social status gradually gains influence to subjective social status in Japan, while the determinant structure is almost equally maintained in the U.S. Expanding class awareness observed in Japan calls for researchers to pay attention to future consequences not only in the U.S., but also other countries.
In this paper, we consider two innovating firms diffusing incompatible technologies and their decision of consumer targeting. The technology adoption is made in two steps. First, once the firms sell their products to their respective targeted consumer, the technology is diffused successively by word-of-mouth communication from the initial consumer to other consumers linked along the network. Then, in the second step, each consumer imitates the technology the neighbors use which fares better, and through this process of imitation, the technology distribution keeps evolving until it reaches the long-run steady state. We consider two cases; when firms are myopic enough to neglect the imitation possibility and when they are sophisticated enough to take the possibility into account. We demonstrate that if firms are myopic, the early innovator chooses the minmax location which surprisingly turns out to be equivalent to the node with the highest closeness centrality. On the other hand, if firms are sophisticated, the best target will tend towards a hub, although the minmax principle in general keeps valid in the sense that it should be the minmax location after considering imitation.
When faced with disaster, strangers, who are not embedded in dense networks, occasionally create communities in which they help one another. This paper introduces a new strategy, Sharing, into the classic Hawk-Dove game and analyzes under what conditions communities emerge and persist. The analyses showed that Sharings are more likely to dominate the population when the value of resources is higher than the cost of fights, although emerged communities do not always persist, due to the invasion of Dove strategies. Future studies should clarify how communities prohibit the expansion of Doves in the population, taking account of spatial structure or asymmetry in resource holding potential.