Survival rates of extremely and very low birth weight infants have been improved dramatically. However, some of the survivors suffer from neurological sequelae. A recent report showed that about 25% of the children with birth weight of less than 1, 000 g had some handicaps, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and visual disturbance. Therefore, it is very important for pediatric neurologists to assess the neurological symptoms properly in the neonatal period. This symposium was organized to present recent progress in the methods for neurological assessment and to discuss how we should support the development of high risk infants.