1) CSF total protein values for the first month are shown in Fig.1 and 2. Data concerning neurological findings overlap (Fig.3). Up to 150 mg per 100 ml has thus to be accepted as normal.2) CSF leucocytes up to 20/3 were observed during the first four weeks of life in 75-78% (Fig.7).3) In full term newborns, indirect bilirubin does have a statistical correlation between serum an d CSF, however this is not linear due to the blood CSF barrier (BCB). Grade of BCB maturity is determined by indirect bilirubin ratio of CSF to serum. Should untoward conditions be present during the perinatal period this ratio is reduced. Clinically a semi-quantitative evaluation of BCB is feasible. The lowest normal limit is a ratio of 70: 1, therefore, a reduction in this ratio can be attributed not only to intracranial hemorrhage (Roberts 1928) but also to increasing permeability of BCB.
Findings of several chemical substances in the CSF of 86 cases of newborn babies (0-14 days of age) were discussed.1. Maxim um values of CSF total protein were about 89 mg% in full term babies and about 200mg% in premature babies. But minimum values of individual cases of intracranial hemorrhage or purulent meningitis were at lowere part of normal range. So we can see some overlap between normal and abnormal range of protein.2. Normal range of CSF gluco se were not so different from the range in normal children. Low glucose values were seen in the cases of hypoglycemia and purulent meningitis, and more remarkable in latter. CSF-blo od ratio of glucose and values of CSF lactate were different between above two diseases. The moving of glucose in CSF may be influenced by intrinsic factors (glycolysis by bac teria or cells) more than extrinsic factors (permeability of blood-CSF-bprrier).3. Normal values of CSF Na, Cl and K were with in normal range of children. Relation of CSF and serum minerals were different between each of Na, Cl and K.
The diagnostic significance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated in autopsy cases and clinical cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (ICH).1. Of the 24 term and premature cases with subdural hemorrhage, 4 term and 1 premature infants were accompanied with subarachnoideal or ventricular hemorrhage which might cause bloody CSF. Eighty to eighty five percentage of 66 premature and term autopsy cases with ICH also had subarachnoideal or ventricular hemorrhage.2. The red cell count in CSF of autopsy cases with intracranial hemorrhage was not parallel to pathological findings of intracranial hemorrhage.3. The protein amount and LDH ac tivity in CSF of clinical and autopsy cases with ICH were not significantly higher than control cases without ICH.4. Benzidin reaction in CSF of cases with IC H was slightly positive within one day after the onset of hemorrhage, and was more strongly positive 2 or 3 days later.5. The concentration of CSF bilirubin and hemoglobin were m easured by spectrophotometric
Cerebrospinal fluid lactic dehydrogenase activity and its isozyme pattern were determined in 210children who were suspected of having various neurological disorders. Among these, 55 patients had no central nervous system diseases and they were regarded as control patients.
The data which are given from the roentgenograms of the skull have several good information in child-cases. And since the skull is apt to transform in childhood in the disease which causes increased intracranial pressure, the roentgenogram of the skull is of use to diagnosis of such condition. For example, the aqueductal stenosis causes enlargement of the supratentorial portion of the skull.
Occasional headache and vomiting were noticed on a 8-year-old boy for the last 3 years. Because of frequent episodes of headache and vomiting, he was seen by a pediatrician and abnormal calcification was found in plain skull films. Neurological examination revealed no pathological findings except for mental retardation. The calcification in plain films was oval shell like form in the anteroposterior projection and in the lateral projection it was seen in the genu of the corpus callosum with an area of prominant radiolucency. PEG showed a mass between both lateral ventricles accompanying agenesis of the corpus callosum. EEG was in borderline Radioactive brain scanning showed a hot scan the in the region of the genu of the corpus callosum. At surgery the tumor was quite vascular and was found to involve both pericallosal arteries. Microscopic examination was reported as well differentiated lipoma. Torkildsen's procedure was applied for obstructive hydrocephalus. Review of the previously reported cases was made and the histogenesis of the lipoma located in the corpus callosum was commented.
A series of 172 cases, presenting the generalized spike & wave complexes during resting EEG conditions (awake or sleep) in childhood epilepsy of various types was reviewed with respect to clirdcal and electroencephalographic correlates.