An enormous amount of building materials must have been deployed for the construction of the early and late phases of Naniwa palace. However, little is known about the details. No preceding studies are available on where the lumbers have come from. In this report, by focusing on umbrella pine, a characteristic wood used in constructing Naniwa palace,I have demonstrated a possibility that the timber might have been produced in Harima Prefecture and the western part of Settsu Prefecture. From there, lumbers were shipped down along major rivers of the area by rafts, and, then, were transported by sea to Naniwa by marine rafts to provide building materials for the Naniwa palace and other structures. They were also transported farther up along the Yodo River to be used in Heiankyo and Heijokyo as well as other surrounding buildings. In considering a new distribution channel of lumbers from Harima Prefecture and the western part of Settsu Prefecture, it is necessary to reexamine the economic role and urban function of Naniwa area as the collection and distribution center for lumbers.
In this paper, the author reveals how nature and the environment are seen by river–fishers, who are actors in subsistence activities (i.e., fishing activities), by analyzing the fishing activities of river–fishers in the Yodogawa River and specific fishery operations. First, the author reveals that river–fishers are interested in fish (i.e., target fish species) and fishing grounds (i.e., areas used for fishing activities), based on analyses of fishing activities and specific fishery operations by river–fishers.
The author then reviews underlying factors that are related to fish and fishing grounds, points out that there are two factors regarding fish (i.e., fish habitats and fish migration), and reveals that these factors are affected by natural factors such as river terrain, water flow, wind direction, and tidal ebb and flow. The author points out that factors related to fishing grounds involve other river–fishers who are rivals in fishery.
In terms of fishers’ attitude toward nature (i.e., fish), the author focuses on the phrase “ask the fish if you want to know about fish”. The author points out that the phrase reflects fishers’ attitude toward nature, that is, people should treat nature as an equal partner. In terms of fishers’ attitude toward the environment in connection with fishing grounds,the author also focuses on the fact that fishers call fishing grounds “rice chest”. The author points out that the expression reflects fishers’ perception of fishing grounds as the foundation that supports their families’ lives.
The ruins of the Osaka Castle in the Toyotomi Period (1580–1615) , burnt down in 1615, remain under the ground of the Osaka Castle Special Historic Site (reconstructed in the Tokugawa Period) . And the site of Osaka Hongan–ji (1496–1580) is presumed in lower layer of the Toyotomi’s phase.
This article, by investigating pottery of the 5–7 century excavated from the south part of this area, indicates that the area of the Osaka Castle Special Historic Site located in the north end of the Uemachi Upland, the highest place in Osaka City, was developed in the ancient times and the center facilities were constructed in the times of Hoenzaka Warehouses in the 5 th century and Former Naniwa Palace Site in the 7 th century.
Modern Osaka’s industrial distribution was considered comparing the account of the Osaka guidance of the Edo period with discoveries of archaeology. As a result, it was able to distinguish to the industry to which the place of production remains in a city area, and the industry which moves to the outer edge part of a city area. A casting, pottery industry such as a tile and a ceramic, and iron oxide red production moved to the outer edge part of the city area after the 18 th century. On the other hand, copper refinement distributed along canals, Nsgahori and Higashiyokobori. Smithery had a place of the production which adjoins an area with much consumption. Bone ornaments, inkstones were produced at many places in the city. It was able to explain concretely that the change had arisen in industrial distribution by products and a production scale under the situation which the city area of the Osaka Castle town area expanded.