Stellate ganglion radiation by polarized light (SGR) and placebo radiation were applied to healthy adults to compare the effects on the autonomic nervous system and electroencephalogram (EEG) of these radiations and the following results were obtained: (1) The pulse rate tended to decrease during and after both SGR and placebo radiation. In contrast, the systolic blood pressure tended to increase during and after both radiations. No significant difference between radiations was found in either the pulse rate or systolic blood pressure. The coefficient of variation of the pulse rate (CV-PR), which reflects conditon of the cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous function, tended to increase during and after SGR and tended to decrease during placebo radiation. The value of CV-PR was significantly higher after SGR than after placebo radiation. (2) The surface skin temperature of the lower extremities after SGR was slightly higher than that after placebo radiation, but the temperature of the upper extremities did not show any difference between SGR and placebo radiation. (3) The relative power of alpha-2 wave as determined by quantitative EEG tended to be greater during and after SGR than during and after placebo radiation. The value 10min after SGR was significantly higher than after placebo radiation. These results suggested that SGR activated the cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous function and relatively suppressed the cardiovascular sympathetic nervous function. We concluded that SGR influences not only the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and surface skin temperature of the lower extremities, but also a wide range of EEG.
We examined the effects of acupuncture therapy on 41 patients with various levels of periarthritis scapulohumeralis. These patients were classified into two groups: one consisting of 20 patients having no contracture, those of freezing type (age 61.0±9.0; suffering period 3.0±5.1 months) and the other consisting of 21 patients having contracture, those of frozen type (age 53.8±7.3; suffering period 5.8±7.8 months). As a result, we found that acupuncture therapy relieved pain more effectively in patients having no spontaneous pain than in those having spontaneous pain regardless of the presence or absence of contracture. We next investigated the effects of this therapy by the patient types. In the group of 20 freezing-type patients, which includes only six patients having spontaneous pain, pain relief was relatively easily obtained as indicated by the pain score after the therapy of 3.6±1.8. In the group of 21 frozen-type patients, which includes 13 patients having spontaneous pain, however, it was difficult to obtain sufficient pain relief as indicated by the pain score of 5.7±2.8. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.002) between these scores. This shows that acupuncture therapy is more effective on freezing-type patients than on frozen-type patients. Therapy also improved the range of motion. In many freezing-type patients, the range of motion was expanded due to pain relief. The abduction ROM expanded from 151.8±39.0° before therapy to 163.8±25.0° after acupuncture therapy. In frozen-type patients, however, the range of motion did not expanded significantly (87.6±24.1° before to 94.8±21.1° after therapy). The above results suggest that acupuncture therapy is effective for relieving the pain of periarthritis scapulohumeralis and that this therapy is particularly effective when applied to those patients having no spontaneous pain before they enter into the frozen phase.
We investigated the effect of hot bath and infrared radiation on tonic muscle discharges due to hypertonia in the affected upper extremity of hemiplegic patients using surface electromyography (EMG). Subjects were 15 hemiplegic patients with cerebrovascular diseases. The subjects were selected on the basis of the presence of considerable rigidospasticity in the biceps brachii muscle (BBM). Hot bath (42°C) was applied for more than 3 minutes in the supine position with the cubital joint fixed in flexion in 11 subjects. Infrared radiation (300 watts) was applied to the flexor side of the affected upper extremity in the same posture in 13 subjects. Surface EMGs of the BBM and triceps brachii muscle (TBM) were recorded bipolarly with waterproof disc electrodes before, during, and after the trials of hot bath and infrared radiation. The recorded EMG was rectified and integrated, and then converted into sequential pulses. The amount of EMG was calculated as the number of pulses. The EMG of the affected side was normalized as a percentage of the amount versus that of the unaffected side in maximum voluntary contraction. The EMGs of the BBM and TBM showed tonic muscle discharges in all subjects in the resting state. The EMGs of the BBM and TBM averaged 6.4% and 1.4% before hot bath and 3.3% and 1.2% before infrared radiation. The EMG of the BBM in the third 1 minute during hot bath decreased by 58.8% (p<0.01) and increased slightly after the trial. The EMG of the TBM during hot bath increased insignificantly, and decreased by 25.3% (p<0.05) in the second 1 minute after the trial. The EMGs of the BBM and TBM in the third 1 minute during infrared radiation decreased by 31.9% (p<0.01) and 9.3% (p<0.05), and the decrease persisted after the trial. The results demonstrated that thermotherapy, especially hot bath, decreases the tonic muscle discharges due to rigidospasticity.
Studies on the effects of heating as well as the mineral components of hot spring water have been conducted to investigate the effects of balneotherapy. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy during water immersion. Therefore, we investigated the effect of water immersion up to the neck at thermoneutral temperature on hemostatic activity. Nine healthy men aged 22 to 34 were immersed up to the neck in the standing position in thermoneutral water (34.0±0.5°C) for two hours. The heart rate decreased immediately after starting water immersion and remained low during the immersion. Hematocrit values (Ht) of the blood samples taken from the ante-cubital vein decreased by 3.4% in average. The decrease in Ht was more prominent in the blood samples taken from the earlobe (4.0%), suggesting that hemodilution due to fluid shift was stronger in the upper part of the body. The time until euglobulin clot lysis shortened immediately after starting the immersion. Although fibrinolytic activity was enhanced, the concentration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen in the blood decreased gradually during the immersion and tended to return to the original level 30 minutes after immersion. A larger decrease in the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen in the blood was observed immediately after starting the immersion, and it remained low for 30 minutes after immersion. An increase in fibrinolytic activity due to the decrease in PAI-1, not in t-PA, was observed during water immersion at thermoneutral temperature and the activation of fibrinolytic system without activation of the coaguration system was also observed.
We investigated the effects of bathing with bath preparation (sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, 30g/200l) on the thermal preservability in healthy volunteers. We also investigated these effects on the antioxidative defense system in patients with vibration syndrome (VS). In these investigations, we measured the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD). After immersion at 41°C for 5min, forearm skin temperature, photoplethysmograph, and transepidermal water loss increased significantly as compared with those after bathing in a plain water. After bathing for 4 weeks at around 40°C for 10min, activities of erythrocyte SOD increased significantly. These data indicate that bathing with the bath preparation has a stronger effect on thermal preservability in healthy volunteers and activation of the antioxidative defense system in patients with vibration syndrome due to a significant increase in activities of erythrocyte SOD.
In order to determine seasonal variations in the physical and laboratory data of outpatients, following items were analyzed in about 200 cases between 1989 to 1996: body mass index (BMI); bioelectrical impedance (IMP); calculated body fat ratio (%FAT) and total body water volume (TBW); red blood cell count (RBC); hemoglobin concentration (Hb); and the serum concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, total protein (TP), total cholesterol (TCHO), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-CHO), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbAlc, amylase, GOT, GPT, γGTP, LDH, CK, and calculated blood osmotic pressure (OSM). To find the magnitude of variation in each season, seasonal averages were first obtained from individual cases. The annual average was then obtained from seasonal averages and each seasonal average was compared with the annual average. These magnitudes were then subjected to a multiple comparison test of Scheffer's F″ for statistical processing. Cr., HDL-CHO, TG and Amylase showed irregular changes or no statistically significant seasonal difference. TBW, Na, Ca, BUN, UA, GOT, GPT, γGTP, LDH and CK exhibited a trough in winter. In contrast, BMI, IMP, %FAT, RBC, HB, TP, FBS, HbAlc, K, Cl, Ca, P and TCHO exhibited a peak in winter. OSM was constant through all seasons. The magnitude of seasonal changes ranged from 0.1% to 24.9%, Large variations exceeding 10% were seen in CK, HbAlc, GPT, γGTP, and K, and those less than 1% were seen in BMI, Na, Cl, Ca and OSM. Seasonal variations in the examination data of outpatients were not so largely influenced by their sex or any abnormal value in other examinations. The level of OSM was calculated by the equation mOSM=Na(mEq/L)+Cl(mEq/L)+FBS (mg/dL)/18+BUN(mg/dL)/2.8. Although each component of this equation showed significant seasonal changes, the level of OSM obtained by this equation was constant or had minimal change.