Effects of spa therapy on % low attenuation area (LAA)<-950 HU of the lungs on HRCT at full inspiration, CT number, a ratio of expiratory LAA to inspiratory LAA (exp LAA/ins LAA), residual volume (RV) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) in asthma were compared between never-smokers and ex-smokers of asthmatics. 1. The % LAA of the lungs on HRCT in asthma significantly decreased after spa therapy both in never-smokers and ex-smokers of asthmatics. CT number also significantly increased in the two groups. 2. The exp LAA/ins LAA significantly decreased after spa therapy in never-smokers, but not in ex-smokers. 3. The %RV also significantly decreased by spa therapy in never-smokers, but not in ex-smokers. 4. The DLco value did not significantly change by spa therapy both in nevers-mokers and ex-smokers. 5. The values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 tended to increased in the two groups, but the increase was not significant. The value of FEV 1.0% significantly increased after spa therapy in never-smokers, but not in ex-smokers. The results suggest that hyperinflation and destruction of terminal airspaces are stronger in ex-smokers than in never-smokers, and that spa therapy is more effective in never-smokers than in ex-smokers.
This study attempted to clarify the effects of 3- and 6-month comprehensive health education programs based on hot spa bathing, lifestyle education and physical exercise on physique, psychological vigor, blood properties, pains in the knee and back, and mental and psychological aspects of women. We examined middle-aged and elderly women who were randomly divided into two groups and followed up until six months and one year later, respectively. Spa programmers, an exercise instructor, and a dietician instructed subjects to one hour of life-style education and physical exercise (lecture on behavior modification, walking, rhythmic exercise, cooking practice, etc.) and one hour (including time for changing clothes and washing body) of a half bath (salt spring, temperature at 41.5) once a week. The program for the 3-month group (n=19) was repeated in the 6-month group (n=14). The evaluation items were BMI, PWC75%HRmax (by a bicycle ergometer as aerobic capacity), blood properties (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, arteriolosclerotic index, uric acid, and HbAlc), profile of mood states, self-rating depression scale, subjective happiness, and pains in the knee and back. Compared with pre-intervention data (26.3±3.6), the BMI decreased significantly (p<0.05) immediately after the intervention (25.7±3.5) and at the follow up six months later (25.7±3.3) in the group of 6-month intervention. In addition, the PWC75%HRmax, HbAlc, pains in the back, vigor, depression, and subjective happiness remained significantly improved (p<0.05), as measured at the 6-month follow-up. On the other hand, some of the items improved in the 3-month intervention group immediately after the intervention, but returned to nearly the same levels as those before intervention at the 1-year follow-up. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the PWC75%HRmax, HbAlc, and fatigue between the two groups, all of which were improved in the 6-month intervention group. These results suggest that a low frequency, once-a-week intervention requires duration longer than three months to maintain the effects, and that the effects should be monitored over years for a correct assessment.
To investigate the scientific grounds for the effect of raspberry ketone bathing that is claimed to increase energy consumption by stimulating metabolism, a bathing experiment was conducted in 10 normal healthy adults. As a result, no appreciable difference was detected among tap water, CO2-enriched water and raspberry water in respect to blood pressure, pulse rate and depth thermometer readings, which suggested that bathing in warm raspberry water was safe, producing no marked load on the cardiovascular system. Changes in the skin surface temperature indicated slow elevation of body temperature, from which bathing in warm raspberry water was considered to produce no marked load on the body even if bathing lasted relatively long as compared with bathing in warm tap water or CO2-enriched warm water. From the skin tissue blood flow data, it seemed likely that the increase in blood flow caused by bathing in warm raspberry water was produced, not by vasodilatation as in CO2-enriched warm water bathing, but by such mechanisms as acceleration of metabolism. Data on insulin suggested that bathing in warm raspberry water affected the carbohydrate metabolism as compared with that in warm tap water or CO2-enriched warm water. Since there was no difference among warm water groups in changes in the adrenocortical hormone “cortisol”, raspberry ketone bathing was considered not to have specific activity. Data on NK cell activity showed that bathing in warm raspberry water produced no appreciable effect on the immune system. It was suggested that measurement of β-endorphin should be performed after adjustment of psychological environments. The results of expiration air analysis also indicated that, while bathing in CO2-enriched warm water was related to changes in the cardiovascular system, bathing in warm raspberry ketone water produced no appreciable load on the cardiovascular system but consumed energy through acceleration of metabolic activities.
The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on tissue circulation in the human ocular fundus (choroidal blood flow) was studied in 11 adult healthy volunteers (6 males and 5 females, age 31.5±5.7y) who had no physical or ocular disease. Using the laser speckle method, normalized blur (NB) values, a quantitative index for tissue blood flow, were measured over an area of choroid between the macula and the optic nerve papilla with no discrete visible vessel. The EA stimulation was applied between BL 10 and GB 20 and between GB 21 and SI 13 on the right side for 15 minutes at 1Hz with an intensity which cause slight muscle contraction. The NB value and intraocular pressure (IOP) in both side eyes, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured at baseline time, immediately after EA, and every 5 minutes after EA up to 15 minutes. These procedures were repeated on the same subjects as a control trial on another day. The NB value of choroid on the stimulated side significantly increased following EA stimulation compared with the control value, while that in the unstimulated side showed no significant change. No significant change was observed in BP, IOP or ocular perfusion pressure throughout the experimental period.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether pulsed microwaves are as effective as continuous microwaves in heating an agar phantom. The power used was 40W for the continuous microwave treatment and 200W with a duty cycle of 20% for the pulsed microwave. In both cases the distance between the antenna and the phantom was 3cm and an irradiation time of 15 minutes was used. The phantom, consisting of cylindrically shaped agar, was irradiated 10 times for each experiment. A fiberoptic thermometer measured temperature in the phantom at depths of 1cm, 2cm, and 3cm, and on the surface. Both modes demonstrated a similar degree of decreasing heating intensity with increasing depth, and no statistically significant differences at each depth. The ratio of the temperature increase at each depth to the temperature increase on the surface was calculated. The ratios at each depth showed no statistically significant differences between modes. It appears, therefore, that pulsed microwaves have the same heat distribution pattern as continuous microwaves and that pulsed microwaves are as useful as continuous microwaves in heating a phantom.
In post-genome era, the greatest challenge of post-genome research is how we can apply genomic outcome to practical field like clinical medicine through discovering effective findings from its complex and meta-molecular network. From the viewpoint of reducing health care cost, preventive medicine that can avoid diseases should be essential target. Balneology that contains preventive medicine in part through unspecified bio-modulation effect should be a principal field of genome science based application. Balneology has expectations to be applied to practical clinical field or health promotion through translational research to modern medicine or health science. This translational research needs establishment of bridging knowledge and its bi-directional migration as the essence of translation. Integration of in silico knowledge among balneology, modern medicine, and genomic science is the fundamental basis of this translation. Single knowledge architecture that has anatomically hierarchical structure, logical conceptual unit and its supportive evidences makes integration logically seamless and establishes smooth translation. This paper reports knowledge architecture in balneologic translational research and its prototype.
It is well known that spa therapy is quite useful for the so-called life-style related diseases. It is therefore speculated that the number of aged people to be cared by the public insurance of elderly care may be less in spa districts than in non spa districts. As a matter of fact it was demonstrated in Oita prefecture that the number of aged people qualified for receiving the care was significantly less in Beppu city and Yufuin town which are well known as spa resort than in the surrounding non spa city or towns. This report is the result tallied up on the data from 38 prefectures all over Japan, regarding the number of aged people and hot springs. Although the ratio of number of aged people qualified for receiving the care to all aged people over 65 y-o is quite different among both the prefectures and the cities or towns under the same prefecture, the tendency of lower ratio in spa cities or towns than in the others was observed. It suggests the more prospective study is necessary on the effects of spa bathing on ADL disorders of aged people.