The purpose of this study was to systemically review cohort studies of the preventive effects on locomotorium diseases in order to collectively evaluate the evidence. We searched the databases of PubMed, CINAHL, and lchushi-Web for papers published from1990 to September 17, 2009. The search was not limited by the language in which the paper was written. We found only one article (in Japanese) that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results in this article showed that bone fractures were significantly lower in the group with two times or more utilization of the hot spa bathing per year compared to the group with one time or less utilization per year, even after adjusting for the confounding effects of exercise habits and WHO-QOL. However, a metaanalysis could not be applied. We propose that it is necessary to conduct more cohort studies in which researchers choose suitable outcome measurements that assess long term effects.
Acupuncture treatment is one of the conditioning methods in the competition field. Athletes who are forced in regularly intensive training often induced deteriorating of condition. Good conditions are adjusted by interaction of immune system, nervous system and endocrine system. Neutrophils and lymphocytes which are blood components prevent infections of the human body in various ways. Intensive training causes an increase of neutrophils, a decrease of lymphocytes and a negative impact on the immune functions. It has been reported that acupuncture stimulation could be involved in the coordination of the immune system. Therefore, acupuncture treatment could be important to keep physical condition and participate physical activity according to the plan without deteriorating of condition. It may be useful not only for athletes but also for the general public who train for the purpose of health and sports enthusiasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acupuncture stimulation on fluctuation of neutrophils and lymphocytes by the transient high-intensity exercise. Method : Twelve healthy men (23.6±O.3 yr [±SE]) participated in this study. Subjects exercised on bicycle ergometer for 60 minutes at 75% of their VO2max. Acupuncture treatment was applied at LU6 (Kongzui), LI 4 (Hegu), ST 36 (Zusanli), and ST 6 (Jiache), for 30 min after the exercise. Blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise, hourly after exercise until 4 hours and 24 hours after exercise. Leukocyte, neutrophils, lymphocytes, Th cells and Tc cells were measured from the blood samples. Result : The neutrophils significantly increased from Post 1h to Post 4h in the both trials (P < 0.05). However the neutrophils was significantly lower in the acupuncture group than in the control group at Post 1h and Post 3h (P < 0.05). The lymphocytes significantly increased from immediately after exercise to Post 24h in the control trial, and increased significantly only at Post 1h to Post 3h in the acupuncture trail (P<0.05). The Th cells significantly decreased from Post 1h to Post 24h in the control trial and decreased significantly only at Post 1h, 2h and 24h in the acupuncture trail (P < 0.05). Conclusion : These results suggested that acupuncture stimulation may reduce the increase of neutrophils and the decrease of lymphocyte and Th cells caused by high-intensity exercise. These results indicated that acupuncture stimulation may promote the recovery from high-intensity exercise.
We have previously reported that hot-spring hydrotherapy for a short duration can change hormone levels in the blood and quantitatively as well as qualitatively regulate leukocytes and their subpopulations. In this study, we examined the effect of hot-spring hydrotherapy on the lymphocytes expressing β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs). We obtained peripheral blood from 9 healthy volunteers (age, 49.7±11.2 years) at the same sampling time before and after (the next day) hot-spring hydrotherapy, and measured the total and differential leukocyte counts and the levels of 3 catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine). We also analyzed the β2-AR of lymphocyte subsets by combination with fluorescent monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD 8, CD 19, and CD56) by using flow cytometry. The number of granulocytes significantly decreased after hot-spring hydrotherapy (p < 0.05). The ratio of β2-AR+ CD4+ cells and β2-AR+ CD3+ cells was low, but that of β2-AR+ CD56+ cells and β2-AR+ CD8+ cells was high. The CD8+ cell and CD56+ cell counts tended to increase after hot-spring hydrotherapy, but no significant variation was found in the β2-AR+ cells of each subset. Adrenaline levels also significantly decreased after hot-spring hydrotherapy (p < 0.05). The rate of change in adrenaline levels before and after hot-spring hydrotherapy was highly correlated with the rate of change in the levels of CD56+, CD8+, and β2-AR+ CD56+ cells. Thus, we found a difference in thepercentage of β2-AR-expressing cells in the lymphocyte subsets. Therefore, it is possible that a short duration of hot-spring hydrotherapy decreased adrenaline levels and quantitatively influenced the natural killer cells and CD8+ cells, which express large amounts of β2-AR.
By using a simplified model for cardiovascular system which consists of the cardiac resistance Rh, the artery Ca, the vein Cb and the peripheral vessel Rs, the ratio of the arteriovenous pressure difference Δp to the maximum arteriovenous pressure difference ΔpM was defined as the circulatory ratio θ ≡Δp ⁄ ΔpM. It was shown that the circulatory ratio θ was θ=1 ⁄ 2 regardless of the exercise. It was revealed that this regulation is done by keeping Rh ⁄ Rs constant and the ratio is equal to the arterial compliance fraction ka.
Blood glucose disposition rate after intravenous glucose infusion is considered to reflect mainly the rate of cellular glucose uptake, the rate of glucose degradation process and gluconeogenesis. excluding the influense of glucose absorption. When it is hypothesized that the elevated blood glucose is disposed by constant rate (one-compartment theory), the following formula will be realized. Ct = A (1— k)t Ct = blood glucose level at t-minutes after infusion A = initial glucose level after infusion k = constant glucose disposition index / min log Ct = log A (1—k) t= log A + t log (1 — k) This formula demonstrates that logarithm of blood glucose concentration (Ct) is a one-dimensional (linear) function of time t with a slope log (1 — k), and blood glucose disposition index k can be calculated from this slope. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, 1.5 ml / kg of 20% glucose (0.3g / kg) was infused at rest within 3 minutes into an antecubital vein and plasma glucose was determinned at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 min after the cessation of infusion. In 10 healthy subjects, linear regression coefficient between logarithm of plasma glucose and time t was significantly higher (r= 0.992 ± 0.006, p<0.001) during 5 to 40 min. Calculated k index ranged from 0.78 to 4.54% / min and the correlation between the 1st and the 2nd measurements (n=5) within a week was also significantly high (0.92±0.06, p<0.01). These results highly support the validity of basic formula (one-compartment theory) and practical procedure to measure k index. The effects of warm water bathing (42 C, 10min) was examined in 7 subjects keeping warmth by blankets. After bathing, k value remained in nearly the same in 4 subjects, decreased in 2 and increased in 1. Although more detailed studies are needed, the effect of single bathing on glucose disposition seems to be not so significant.