Objective We examined the effects of acupuncture electrotherapy in young women with hie symptoms (excessive sensitivity to cold), presented in conjunction with vasomotor dysfunction as determined by the postural change test. Subjects and Methods Subjects comprised 20 women (mean age, 20.6 years; range, 18-26 years) who exhibited symptoms of hie, evaluated as toe skin temperature after standing for 5 mins or a temperature difference between the right and left toes as compared to before standing. A stainless steel acupuncture needle (length, 40 mm; diameter, 0.2 mm) was inserted approximately 15 mm in SP6 (Shangqui). Acupuncture electrotherapy connected an acupuncture electrode to SP6 and a non-feeling electrode to lateral of the tibial tuberosity, and was undertaken at a frequency of 1 Hz for 20 mins. Therapy was provided as a total of 5 sessions, with 1 session each week, and the postural change test was performed before and after therapy. Thermal images from the medial aspect of the foot to the tibial aspect of the lower leg were captured using a medical thermography device, and mean skin temperature was calculated in selected regions of the toes, metatarsals, ankle, and tibial aspect of the lower leg. Therapy was evaluated using a questionnaire with two originally designed scales: a categorical scale of 14 symptoms including hie; and degree of hie on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Subjects completed the questionnaire every day during a period from 1 week before therapy sessions began until 1 week after completion of all 5 sessions. Scores for hie symptoms were calculated as mean values from the total score of the 14 symptoms and VAS each week. Changes in health-related quality of life with acupuncture were evaluated using the SF-8 Standard Edition. Results Toe skin temperature just after standing was not significantly increased by therapy as compared to before standing. Skin temperature on the tibial aspect of the lower leg 20 mins after standing was significantly increased as compared to the adaptation period. In terms of hie, VAS and SF-8, no significant changes were seen before and after therapy, but total score for the 14 symptoms decreased significantly. Conclusions Acupuncture electrotherapy to SP 6 did not appear to exacerbate hie symptoms after reductions in air temperature, while normalizing the postural vascular reflex and improving hie-related symptoms.
Introduction Seifu, devised in 1992 by Xu, is a therapeutic technique of “pulling the skin”. Its effects on the blood pressure, edema, and pain were previously reported in part 1. In this report, Electroencephalography (EEG) changes between before and after Seifu were evaluated. Subjects and Methods The electroencephalograph was performed using an FM-717 biofeedback system (FUTEK, Yokohama, Japan). EEG was recorded for 1 minute each before and after Seifu, and changes in brain waves were analyzed. The subjects were 7 males and 39 females with a mean age of 74.7±16.2 years who underwent Seifu for 5 minutes or longer (5-30 mins, mean : 13.8±6.3 mins) a total of 131 times. EEG was also recorded for 1 minutes each before and after Seifu by 2 Seifu therapists. Results The percentages of β-dominant (p<0.05) and θ-dominant (p<0.001) periods significantly decreased, and the percentages of α2-distribution (p<0.01) and α3-distribution (p<0.05) periods significantly increased. With one therapist, β waves decreased, after both the first and second Seifu treatments. With the other therapist, α1 and α2 waves increased, but θ waves decreased, after both the first and second Seifu treatments. Discussion The results indicate that sleepiness was resolved, tension was mitigated, and the level of relaxation rose, after Seifu. In other words, Seifu brought about a feeling of calm wakefulness. This suggests an increase in serotonin secretion after Seifu. Serotonin generated from tryptophan is a neurotransmitter with an antidepressant effect and causes composure and a sense of stability. An increase in serotonin secretion is reported to induce calm wakefulness and α2-dominant EEG traces. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that Seifu treatment of a sufficient duration stimulates serotonin secretion. Seifu is performed by “simple and constant rhythmic movements”. The technique of Seifu closely resembles that of grooming. Such simple and constant rhythmic movements are considered to stimulate serotonin secretion, and grooming reportedly increases serotonin secretion in both the groomer and groomed. Therefore, the health of not only the Seifu recipient but also Seifu therapist is considered to be promoted by increased serotonin secretion. Conclusion The changes in EEG traces after Seifu of a sufficient duration suggested increased serotonin secretion. Seifu is considered to promote the health of not only the recipient but also the therapist by increasing serotonin secretion.
Purpose Forearm bathing is considered beneficial for the hands of patients with spastic hemiplegia, but the effect has not been investigated comprehensively. This study investigated the effectiveness of forearm bathing for patients with hemiplegic hands. Subjects and Methods In total, nine hemiplegic patients participated in the study (mean±standard deviation age=56.9±16.6 years; mean±standard deviation period from onset=21.1±21.2 months). Participants sat in a relaxed position on a chair, and dipped the affected forearms into 40°C warm water for 15 mins. The Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) score was evaluated before and after forearm bathing as an indicator of hemiplegic hand function. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score for the biceps brachii muscle, and both the resistance power of elbow extension and the F/M ratio (F-wave amplitudes/ M wave amplitudes) for the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, were evaluated as indicators of hemiplegic hand spasticity. The device used to measure the resistance power of elbow extension comprised a motor, cuffs to fix the hemiplegic arm and forearm in place, and a control system. The axis of rotation of the device was positioned over the axis of rotation of the elbow joint. The device induced passive elbow flexion and extension movements at an angular velocity of 60°/sec or 90°/sec. Results After forearm bathing, the STEF score increased significantly (p<0.05) from 42.9±28.0 to 47.8±28.4 (n=9), the resistance power of elbow extension at 90°/min decreased significantly (p<0.01) from 4.0±1.8 N to 3.0±1.9 N, and the MAS score and F/M ratio were unchanged (n=6). Conclusions Forearm bathing appeared to improve function and decrease spasticity in hemiplegic hands. This treatment might facilitate hand rehabilitation.
Background Although acupuncture medicine has been used with the aim of maintenance or promotion of health as well as improvement and/or cure of disease, scientific evidences regarding the effect of the therapy on health maintenance or health promotion so far are limited. We evaluated the effect of electroacupuncture on oxidative stress, antioxidative activity, autonomic nerve functions and anxiety to investigate the usefulness of the therapy in terms of health maintenance and health promotion. Methods Subjects of the present study were nine healthy volunteers (six males and three females, mean age 29.3years). These subjects participated in two experimental conditions (with and without electroacupuncture) at random order with an interval of at least one week. Oxidative stress and antioxidative activity were determined with an automatic free radical analyzer (FRAS-4). Autonomic nerve functions were evaluated with heart rate valiability (HRV) analysis using an ECG monitoring system. Also, psychological statement was evaluated with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). These evaluation were carried out immediately before and after electroacupuncture or resting period both of which the duration was set for 15 minutes. Electroacupuncture was carried out at LI4 (Hegu) and LI10 (Shousanli) at a frequency of 1.3Hz with a comfortable intensity for the subject. Comparison of the data between immediately before and after stimulation was performed with paired-t test. Repeated measures ANOVA was applied for comparison between groups. Correlation analysis was performed to estimate relation between outcomes. All the analysis was carried out using commercially available statistical software (SPSS ver. 11). A p-value less than five percents was considered statistical significance. Results Antioxidative activity was markedly increased under the condition of that electroacupuncture was carried out (p<0.05), which resulted in a statistically significnt difference when compared with those in the control condition, while no statistically significant difference was found between two conditions in the oxidative stress. No significant difference after electroacupuncture was found in any items of HRV analysis and the STAI. There was no significant correlation between changes in the antioxidative activity, items in HRV and STAI. Discussion & Conclusion Electroacupuncture was capable of increasing antioxidative activity but had no influence on the autonomic nerve functions and anxiety. We suggested that the mechanism underlying the effect of electroacupuncture to the antioxidative activity may not involve changes in the autonomic nerve functions or psychological factors, but rather depending on the micro injury in the tissue at the needling points or muscle contraction which had been evoked during stimulation.
We assessed the minimum knowledge requirements to be satisfied by care providers for the management of a hot bathing in general medicine. Approximately 1.7% of outpatients questioned the propriety of hot bathing, and a greater percentage asked about the risks of hot bathing in association with several infectious disease or cardiovascular disease. We propose that care providers should be required to satisfy the following as the minimum knowledge requirements for the management of hot bathing; 1) Can explain the effects and risks of hot bathing, 2) Can carry out adequate management for the hot bating of patients with cardiovascular disease, 3) Can explain the propriety of hot bathing for patients with several infectious disease.