The effects of bathing in a solution of artificial bath additive including inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (CO2-bathing: 41°C, 10 minutes; the concentration of carbon dioxide was 160-180 ppm, and that of inorganic salts was about 64 ppm) on the cardiovascular system, body flexibility, muscle stiffness and the subjective feeling of bathing were compared with those of no bathing and plain water bathing in the healthy subjects. The deep body temperature and skin blood flow increased after bathing, and the increases after CO2-bathing were significantly greater than those after plain water bathing. Body flexibility after CO2-bathing was similar to that of no bathing and plain water bathing. Stiffness of the trapezius muscle was decreased at both 15 min and 30 min after CO2-bathing and plain water bathing, with no change in no bathing. The changes at 15 min after CO2-bathing and plain water bathing were statistically significant. Stiffness in the latissimus dorsi muscle decreased at both 15 min and 30 min after CO2-bathing and plain water bathing, with no change in no bathing. However, only these changes at 15 min and 30 min after CO2-bathing were statistically significant. A large decrease in the stiffness of the trapezius muscle by its isometric contraction was observed during both CO2-bathing and plain water bathing, and the decrease after CO2-bathing was greater than that after plain water bathing. These changes did not reach statistical significance. Improvements in subjective feeling of bathing were observed after both plain water bathing and CO2-bathing. Improvements after CO2-bathing in stiffness of muscle, ease of movements and mental relaxation were statistically greater than those after plain water bathing. Compared with plain water bathing, CO2-bathing showed additional effects on muscle stiffness and subjective feeling of bathing. Further research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of the CO2-bathing alone and combined with isometric movements on muscle stiffness.
Accidental tolls during bathig in Japanese subjects were analyzed in collaboration with Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. We sent out questionnaires to 212 medical emergency centers all over Japan to know the number of ambulance runs, outcomes of the patients, if they performed autopsy or postmortem imaging. Total number of victims was 782. More number of accidents occurred in elderly people and in winter season. Autopsies or postmortem imaging was rarely performed. To know the underlying causes of accidental death relating with bathing, autopsy and/or postmortem imaging should be done on more cases.
Hot sprigs elements and balneological effects of Tokyo 23 wards, which is not recognized as hot spring region were considered. The density of the hot spring’s source in this region is high compared to other parts of the country. Moreover, a useful element and temperature for the balneological treatment was confirmed by the hot springs with deep digging in a lot of places. The hot springs in Tokyo can be classified into the NaCl strong salt hot springs, NaHCO3, and the sodium metasilicates. The strong Na-Cl (salt) springs are recognized in hot springs found by deep digging, and exists everywhere in Tokyo. The hot springs of the NaHCO3 are localized in Ohta ward by moderate depth digging. The hot springs including with the rich sodium metasilicates in Ohta ward by shallow digging. If the hot springs in Tokyo are to be used the balneologically, the following effects are expected. Thermal and warm keeping effects can be expected from the strong Na-Cl (salt) springs. Cleanness and smoothing effects of the skin can be expected of NaHCO3. Hyperkeratosis of the skin can be expected from rich sodium metasilicates.
Focused relaxation fosters mental and physical repose using stretching and breathing techniques in a pleasant environment. In this study, we analyzed the usefulness of this relaxation technique at the workplace by examining autonomic nervous system activity and psychological effects. Eleven healthy adults (7 males and 4 females) participated in this relaxation technique at a workplace. We investigated heart rate variability, salivary amylase levels and psychological state (Profile of Mood States) before and after the relaxation technique. Average levels of salivary amylase declined from 29.2±12.7kIU/L (mean±standard deviation) to 23.2±10.9kIU/L during the relaxation technique (p=0.05). Average heart rate was also reduced from 90.8±10.0beats/min to 84.9+8.9beats/min during the relaxation technique (p<0.01). Average hig-frequency band power values increased from 315.1±211.3msec2 to 381.8±225.3msec2 during the relaxation technique (p=0.02). Tension Anxiety score of Profile of Mood States decreased from 40.5±4.6 to 35.8±3.3 after the relaxation technique (p<0.01), and the Fatigue score of Profile of Mood States declined from 43.8±6.2 to 40.4±4.1 after the relaxation technique (p<0.05). These results suggested that the relaxation technique increased parasympathetic nervous system activity and decreased sympathetic nervous system activity. This relaxation technique can easily be performed at the workplace without special equipment and can elicit a subjective improvement in fatigue and anxiety in workers.
Purpose The effects of 10 min bathing at 41°C and 200 m/1.2min running inducing similar tachycardic response were examined comparatively on cardiovascular functions, blood gas and tissue metabolism, and peripheral blood compositions. Subjects and Methods The subjects examined were 13 healthy males (28.7±3.6 yrs). They kept rest for 30min before bathing and running study and measurements of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), sublingual temperature and skin blood flow and a indwellng catheter for blood sampling in cubital vein were performed. The subjects had 41°C bathing for 10 min and 200 m running/1.2 min (10km/hr) separately which induced the increase in heart rate by 30bpm in preliminary study. Measurements and blood sampling were done just after the loading (bathing or running) and 15min after the loading. Results and Discussion The increase in HR just after bathing and running were nearly the same level, 27 and 25 bpm, respectively. The increase in systolic BP after running was greater than that after bathing, and diastolic BP was significantly reduced after bathing from resting level. Sublingual temperature and skin blood flow were increased only after bathing suggesting the marked thermal vasodilation. After bathing, venous pO2 was significantly increased and pCO2 was significantly decreased, and there were no significant changes in lactate and pyruvate level. On the contrary, after 200 m running, venous pO2 was decreased and pCO2 was increased, and blood lactate, pyruvate and P/L ratio were significantly increased. These changes show that bathing provides tissue full oxygenation and washout of CO2 by increased blood supply without metabolic activation. After running, increased glycolysis in muscle and delayed oxidation by TCA cycle were suggested. As the increase in WBC after bathing (+6%) and exercise (+22%) subsided very shortly., these changes might be explained by mixing perivascular flow enriched with leucocytes and central flow enriched with plasma due to increased circulation. Previous reports on the change of lymphocyte subsets after bathing and exercise should be examined from this viewpoint. The role of plasma concentration estimated from the changes in RBC and plasma protein was relatively low, around 2% by bathing and 4% by running. Conclusion Health promotion by bathing seems to be conducted through sufficient O2 supply and washout of CO2 by thermal vasodilation without metabolic activation. Health promotion by exercise is induced by strong activation of cardiovascular and muscle metabolic function. Combination of passive effects by bathing and active exercise will be favorable for balanced health promotion.