Objectives: To investigate the effect of warming on contraction of the detrusor muscle and the micturition reflex in rats. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Changes in the contractile response of detrusor smooth muscle strips to 40 mM KCl caused by warming to 40°C and 42°C were evaluated by an isometric tension recording study. The effect of intravesical warming at 40.7±1.0°C on the micturition reflex was evaluated by continuous infusion cystometry in conscious rats. Results: Warming to 40°C and 42°C inhibited 40 mM KCl-induced contractions of detrusor smooth muscle strips by 10% and 15.5%, respectively. Intravesical warming at 40.7±1.0°C decreased the pressure threshold for inducing micturition by 14%, resting pressure by 30%, closing peak pressure by 22%, 2nd phase contraction duration by 36%, bladder contraction duration by 26%, and increased bladder compliance by 17%. Maximal voiding pressure and 1st phase contraction duration were unaltered. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that warming relaxed the detrusor muscle and increased bladder compliance. This suggests that warming might be useful for treatment of low compliance bladder observed in the neurogenic bladder due to neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. To clarify the usefulness of warming or hot springs for the treatment of neurogenic bladder, the effect of warming on the body surface on the micturition reflex should be investigated.
Objective: We examined the effects of ontokyu (warm tube moxibustion) medical treatment of GB33 and SP6 on young women with a chilly constitution (‘Hie’ symptoms). Methods: The subjects were 13 female university students (mean age: 20.7± 1.3years). They were assigned to either a GB33 group or an SP6 group in consideration of height for the determinate method by the discriminant analysis of Sakaguchi et al. After a one-week pre-observation period, 1 or 2 ontokyu treatments (Choan NEO, Yamasho) twice a week for four weeks were conducted. The follow-up period was two weeks. Effects of the therapy were evaluated using an original questionnaire (‘Hie’ diary), which consisted of six categorical scales of 14 symptoms and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of the severity of ‘Hie’. Results: Three subjects dropped out before 1st week therapy among the 13 subjects, so the number of subjects in both groups became five. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of age, height, weight, BMI, VAS, and total score for 14 symptoms at the baseline. There was no interaction between the groups for VAS or total score for the 14 symptoms. For both groups, no significant changes could be found in VAS during the intervention period and follow-up period compared with that during the pre-observation period. Although the total score for the 14 symptoms in both groups decreased gradually from the start of intervention for the GB33 group, it significantly decreased in after the 3rd and 4th weeks therapy compared with that in the pre-observation period. For the SP6 group, it significantly decreased in after the 4th week therapy and the 2nd week after finished therapy. For each item of the 14 symptoms, the GB33 group showed significant differences in stiff neck and shoulders and feeling thirsty when their scores between the pre-observation period and the intervention period were compared. In addition, the SP6 group showed a significant difference in stiff neck and shoulders, feeling thirsty, and nervousness when their scores between the pre-observation period and the intervention period were compared. Specifically, stiff neck and shoulders for the GB33 group was significantly reduced in the 1st and 2nd weeks after finished therapy, and feeling thirsty showed significant reduction in after the 3rd and 4th weeks therapy. On the other hand, for the SP6 group, stiff neck and shoulders significantly decreased in after the 2nd and 4th weeks therapy and the 1st and 2nd after finished therapy, as did feeling thirsty in the 4th week therapy and in the 2nd week after finished therapy, as well as becoming nervous in after the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks therapy. Conclusion: It was suggested that ontokyu medical treatment to GB33 and SP6 for young women with a chilly constitution did not appear to exacerbate the severity of ‘Hie’ after reductions in air temperature, while improving the total score for 14 symptoms similarly.
Habitual bathing varies greatly depending on the country and culture, showering style spreads in recent years in accordance with the age. So we investigate the habitual bathing of modern maternity and the effect of perinatal course. An unidentified questionnaire was distributed toward the 204 puerperal women, who were delivered in Shizuoka Kosei hospital from April in 2011 to February in 2012. Questinaire consists of multiple-choice selection and free writing about the habitual and balneum bathing. By way of the combination between these results and the maternal events, we investigated the relationship of them. The 204 puerperal women were divided into 99 primipara, 76 unipara and 29 multipara, who underwent the 12 threatened abortion, 35 threatened preterm delivery, 15 preterm delivery, 7 pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and 10 weak labor and 26 preterm rupture of the membrane. On the other hand, all the puerperal women had the habitual bathing every day, 38 of puerperal women (35%) had the style of showering every day, 45 of them had the style of bathing from 1 to 3 times a week, and 121 of them had the style of bathing for over 4 times a week. As compared with their distribution, there was the tendency that PIH was increased in the bathing group, otherwise the weak pains was increased in the showering group. There is a little evidence how the habitual bathing depends on the factor and promotion of bacterial vaginosis, the style of bathing could encourage the cleanliness and maintain the vaginal flora through the puerperal course in this clinical survey.
We examined the anti-arteriosclerosis effects of spa treatment in diabetes. We also conducted a comparative study which included non-diabetes patients and diabetes patients who did not receive spa treatment. Methods: Subjects were 104 spa-treated diabetes inpatients at this hospital (Group 1), 60 spa-treated non-diabetes inpatients at this hospital (Group 2), and 28 diabetes patients at other facilities who did not receive spa treatment (Group 3). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) tests were conducted upon admittance and discharge. Results: ABI for diabetes patients (Group 1) showed significant improvement from 1.10±0.01 to 1.12±0.01 on the right side (p<0.01). The left side also showed significant improvement from 1.06±0.02 to 1.09±0.01 (p<0.01). However, non-diabetes patients (Group 2) showed no change on the right side (1.09±0.01 to 1.07±0.02) or left side (1.08±0.01 to 1.06±0.02). Diabetes patients who did not receive spa treatment (Group 3) also showed no change on the right side (1.07±0.03 to 1.05±0.03) or the left side (1.05±0.03 to 1.06±0.03). Discussion: We measured the patients in Group 1, before and after spa treatment, for arteriosclerosis markers Total PAI-1 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, oxidative stress marker TNF-α, and good adipocytokine adiponectin. Total PAI-1 showed a decrease, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein and TNF-α showed a significant decrease, while adiponectin showed a significant increase. Spa treatment was shown to effectively fight arteriosclerosis and inflammation, and to improve endothelial functions. Conclusion: The changes shown in this study were not seen in non-diabetes patients and diabetes patients who did not receive spa treatment. Therefore, we believe that spa treatment is beneficial for pathological changes caused by diabetes that are particularly skewed towards arteriosclerosis.