The Journal of Japanese Balneo-Climatological Association
Online ISSN : 1884-3689
Print ISSN : 0369-4240
ISSN-L : 0369-4240
Volume 24 , Issue 1
Showing 1-6 articles out of 6 articles from the selected issue
  • Riichi MARUYAMA
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 1-18
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mäuse wurden mit Na24 markierten Kochsalzbädern behandelt. Die Versuchstiere wurden kurz nach dem Baden mehrmals mit Wasser gewaschen und dann enthäutet. Die enthäuteten Körper wurden in Muffelofen verascht und die Radioaktivität der Asche wurde mit einem Scintillation-Zählapparat gemessen.
    Es ergab sich, dass
    1) Natriumionen durch die Haut resorbiert wurden,
    2) Natriumionen aus alkalischem Badewasser mehr als aus saurem Badewasser perkutan resorbiert wurden,
    3) Natriumresorption aus 2.0g/L. NaCl-Lösung mehr als aus 1.0g/L. NaCl-Lösung erfolgte, aber dass es keinen Unterschied gibt zwischen 2.0g/L. NaCl-Lösung und 10.0g/L. NaCl Lösung,
    4) Und Natriumionen mit einer Badedauer von 60 Minuten mehr als mit einer Badedauer von 30 Minuten resorbiert wurden und Natriumionen aus 2.0g/L. NaCl-Lösung mehr als aus 2.0g NaCl+0.5g CaCl2, /L. Lösung resorbiert wurden.
    Gruppen von Mäusen liess man täglich 1 mat Kochsalzbäder für 1-4 Wochen oder Kalziumchloridbäder für 1 Woche nehmen.
    Es zeigte sich:
    5) Nach aufeinanderfolgenden Kochsalzbädern für eine Woche entstand eine Anpassung der Haut gegen perkutanen Natriumeintritt. Nämlich, verminderte es sich die Natriumresorption nach und nach durch die Wiederholung der Bäder. Nach 3 Wochen hörte die Weiterverminderung der Natriumresorption auf.
    6) Nach Unterbrechung der Serienbäder kehrte allmählich die Resorptionsfähigkeit der Haut zum Initialzustand zurück und zeigte in 3 Wochen fast normales Verhalten.
    7) Nach aufeinanderfolgenden Kalziumchloridbädern von einer Woche verminderte sich auch die Natriumionresorption durch die Haut während des Badens.
    Demnach entsteht die scheinbare Gewöhnung der Haut an Natriumionenresorption nicht spezifisch.
    Mit Hilfe von intravenös injizierter NaCl-Lösung liess sich bei Kaninchen eine Natriumionenwanderung durch die Haut nachweisen.
    8) Natriumauswanderung durch die Haut zeigte individuell ziemliche Schwankungen, aber die initiale Ausscheidung in 10 Minuten nach der Injektion zeigte mehr oder weniger miteinander vergleichbare Werte.
    9) Wenn die Kaninchenhaut von mit einer sauren Lösung befeuchtetem Tuch bedeckt wurde, erfolgte die perkutane Natriumauswanderung leichter als mit einer alkalischen Lösung.
    10) Die Kaninchenhaut bedeckenden Tücher wurden in Kochsalzlösungen von verschiedenen Konzentrationen oder Kalziumchloridlösung getaucht. Der perkutane Natriumaustritt in die 0.1g% NaCl-Lösung ergab sich grösser als in die 2.0g% NaCl-Lösung. Die Natriumauswanderung durch die Haut in die 0.9g% NaCl-Lösung war grösser als in 0.9g NaCl+0.1g CaCl2% Lösung. Nämlich Zusatz von CaCl2, in Kochsalzlösung hemmte die Natriumauswanderung wie die Zunahme der Kochsalzkonzentration.
    11) Nach aufeinanderfolgenden Kochsalzbädern von einer Woche verminderte sich die Natriumauswanderung durch die Haut.
    12) Drei Wochen nach Unterbrechung der Bäder kehrte allmählich die verminderte perkutane Natriumauswanderung zum normalen Wert zurück.
    13) Diese Herabsetzung des perkutanen Natriumaustrittes wurde nicht allein spezifisch durch Serienkochsalzbäder hervorgerufen, sondern auch unspezifisch durch eine Woche lang nacheinanderfolgender täglich einmaligen Kalziumchloridbäder.
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  • Tadashi AMAMIYA
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 19-46
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Die Blutdruckveränderungen von 244 Hochdruckkranken wurden während der Badekur in Kageyu täglich einmal bis zu 2 Wochen verfolgt. Es ergab sich, dass der systolische Blut-druck eine steile Abnahme zeigte, und den minimalen Wert durchschnittlich am 12 ten Badetag erreichte. Die Abnahme im diastoilsehen Blutdruck war im Vergleich mit der des systolischen Blutdrucks geringer. Systolischer und diastolischer Blutdruck am Anfang der Badekur zeigten eine signifikante Korrelation mit dem Blutdruckabfall durch die Badekur. Auch wurde eine bedeutende Korrelation zwischen dem Blutdruckabfall durch die Badekur und dem Blutdruckabfall nach einmaligem Thermalbad am Anfang der Badekur bemerkt.
    Hypertoniker ohne pathologischen Befund in E. K. G. oder positiven Befund in Harneiweiss am Anfang der Badekur zeigten einen besseren Erfolg als die Patienten mit pathologischen Zeichen von Myokardschädigung oder Harneiweiss. Betreffend der Einflüsse des P. S. P. -Testes, der Körpergewichte, Lebensjahre, und Jahreszeiten auf den Effekt der Badekur zeigte sich kein bedeutungsvoller Unterschied.
    Sechzig Patienten mit Myokardschaden hatten eine Badekur durchschnittlich von 23 Tagen durchgeführt und 37 Fälle zeigten irgendeine Besserung in E. K. G., 14 Fälle blieben unverändert, und 9 Fälle zeigten Verschlimmerungsbilder am Ende der Badekur. Acht Fälle von 12 gebesserten Myokardkranken, die nach 6-13 Monaten wieder untersucht wurden, zeigten noch anhaltenden Erfolg.
    Blutdruck der Netzhautarterien wurde in 48 Hypertonikern während der Badekur verfolgt und bedeutender Abfall in systolischem Blutdruck wurde festgestellt. Es gab eine auffallende Korrelation zwischen dem Schwund der Kopfbeschwerden (z. B. Kopfschmerz, Kopfschwergefühl, Schwindel) und dem Abfall im systolischen Blutdruck der Netzhautarterien, nicht aber der Brachialarterien. Der systolische Blutdruck der Netzhautarterien ging durch Serienbäder nicht immer pararell mit der Veränderung des systolischen Blutdrucks der Brachialarterien.
    Phenolsulfophthalein-Test wurde an 60 Hypertonikern ausgeführt. Infunktiongeschädigter Gruppe wurde eine bedeutsame Besserung der Nierenfunktion durch die Badekur von durchschnittlich 25 Tagen herbeigeführt.
    Gesamtes Cholesterin im Serum von 18 Hypertonikern erreichte durchschnittlich am Ende der ersten Woche seinen Minimal-Wert, dann kehrte es in der zweiten-dritten Woche wieder zum Initialwert zurück.
    Bei der Entlassung von 60 Hypertonikern wurde das Kurresultat verzeichnet, weiches späterhin mit den Folgeresultaten derselben 60 Kranken verglichen wurde. Der anhaltende Erfolg des Blutdruckabfalls war besser in der Gruppe mit einer Kurdauer von über 2 Wochen als in der Gruppe mit Kurdauer unter 2 Wochen. Auch im Fernresultat zeigten die Hypertoniker ohne patbologischen Befund in F. K. G. oder positiven Befund in Harneiweiss einen besseren Erfolg als die Patienten mit Myokardschädigung oder Harneiweiss.
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  • Rinjiro SEO
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 47-85
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, more and more attention has been drawn to the injurious effects of radiation. Therefore, the effect of the internal use of radioactive waters was studied experimentally to decide if hazardous influence is practically provable through the spa treatment with natural radioactive waters. A radioactive water of Spring No. 49, Group A, Masutomi was used for the study as it holds the highest record of Rn content in Japan. The water used contained 720×10-9c/l Rn-218×10-9c/l Rn at the time of the experiment.
    Fifty-seven rabbits in total were divided into 8 groups. Ten to thirty ml of the water was given daily to each rabbit by stomach tube for 150 days. Stored mineral water, tap water from Tokyo, or river water of Masutomi (Rn content: 1.3×10-10c/l) were used as controls.
    Blood picture, serum calcium, serum phosphor, and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured before the experiment was started, and repeated periodically after the 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and after 3, 4, and 5 months. After five months the animals were sacrificed and investigated histologically. α- and β- activities of the liver, spleen, lung, brain, heart, adrenals, testis, bone, and kidney were determined by using a gas flow counter and a Geiger-Müller counter.
    22×10-10c/l-238×10-10c/l of Rn was present in the mineral water given at one time. Rn concentration of the water was equivalent to about 100-400 times “Maximum permissible concentration of Rn in waters for general use N. B. S.”
    Results obtained were as follows:
    1) Hemoglobin content and erythrocyte count showed, generally, a tendency to increase slightly or showed no change, and little difference was recognized among each group.
    Platelets count was variable but a tendency towards an increase in two phases was seen especially in the group of rabbits drinking fresh mineral water at the Masutomi Spa.
    The white cell count proved also variable but a tendency towards increase was verified both in the tap water group and in the mineral water group; the fresh mineral water group at the Masutomi spa, especially, showed the tendency towards the increase in two phases compared with the river water group. However, after three or more months, experiments revealed, that the white cell-count reached the initial level and no definite decrease in leucocytes was seen, even in the fresh mineral water drinking group.
    Though lymphocyte and pseudo-eosinophil counts also showed a tendency to increase, no significant difference was generally proven between the mineral water group and the control groups.
    2) No significant difference was obtained between the changes in the control groups and mineral water groups concerning serum calcium, serum phosphorus (inorganic phosphorus, acid soluble phosphorus, total phosphorus), and serum alkaline phosphatase activity.
    3) Through measurement of radioactivity of the ashes of the organs, a weak α-activity was discovered especially in the bone, which was estimated to be far less than the maximum permissable concentration of Ra.
    4) Histological investigation of the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, testis, adrenal, brain and bone marrow revealed no characteristic findings of injuries that might result from the radioactivity.
    Therefore, for the present, no positive reason was obtained against spa treatments using natural radioactive springs in Japan.
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  • Yutaro ISHIGAMI
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 86-115
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The author made examination of the effect of hot spring bathing in 37°C lukewarm carbonated spring on the function of the blood circulation.
    In summarizing the results, it may be said that the bathing in lukewarm carbonated spring evidently has a good effect on the blood pressure, especially on hypertensive persons, making it possible for him to lower the blood pressure without any fear over a period of more than two hours after bathing. It has been made clear that the fall in the blood pressure is more pronounced in those, who have a higher blood pressure; when the bathing time is extended from 20 minutes to 40 minutes and to 90 minutes, the fall in the blood pressure will be more remarkable and continues for a longer time. The bathing in a lukewarm spring shows no effect on men with normal blood pressure; on men with low blood pressure it has an effect to raise, though very slightly, the blood pressure after bathing. These effects may be called “normalizing action on the blood pressure” of bathing in a lukewarm carbonated spring. No difference in this action is caused by the change of seasons. The fall in the blood pressure caused by this kind of bathing grows remarkable till the first to the second week of the successive bathing cure, but in the third week it becomes less remarkable, showing the appearance of an “adaptation phenomenon” in bathers.
    It may be said of the bathing in a lukewarm carbonated spring, that it lowers the blood pressure in the first and the second week of bathing, but that the third week is the limit beyond which any further fall cannot be expected.
    The circulating blood volume increased immediately after bathing, and the rate of increase in the circulating blood plasma volume was small, compared with the blood corpuscle volume. Ht-value was found to increase remarkably in all the cases, being highest immediately after bathing and approaching gradually the pre-bathing value in two hours after bathing. Successive bathing cure showed the peak in the variation in the effect of bathing in the second week, and no remarkable increase was observable in the third week even immediately after bathing. The number of the heart beat became less, that is, became bradycardia immediately after bathing, returning to the pre-bathing value after two hours. Considerable degree of variance in the heart beat interval observed before bathing showed less variance two hours after bathing, approaching the neighborhood of the average heart beat interval.
    The variations in the blood pressure, similar to those observed in the bathing in a lukewarm carbonated spring, were observable in the bathing in a 42°C spring. This bathing could be applied to balneological therapy of hypertension if preliminary partial bathing and examination of individual reaction to hot-spring bathing were made before bathing, because the fall in the blood pressure after bathing in a 42°C spring occurs rather abruptly. The increase in the circulating blood volume, in the blood plasma volume and in the blood corpuscle volume was observed in all the cases and Ht-value also showed an increase immediately after bathing. The increase in the circulating blood volume immediately after bathing was kept at about 3.0% during the successive bathing cure, showing no great changes; the increase in the blood plasma volume grew larger with the progress of the bathing cure; the increase in the blood corpuscle volume became smaller; therefore, the rate of increase in the three would be almost the same with the progress of the bathing cure. With respect to the number of heart beats, the bathing in a 42°C spring caused bradycardia with a long heart beat interval, similar to that caused by the bathing in a lukewarm spring and also tachycardia with a short heart beat interval, as in the case of the bathing in 45°C spring, the number of cases being almost the same. However, the preliminary examination before bathing is nece
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  • Masaji SEKI
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 116-121
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Es wurde das Redoxpotential von Heissquellenwässern unter Benutzung der Farbstoffindikatoren bestimmt. Das rH erstreckt sich von —2 bis 23 und mehr. Die reduzierende und oxvdierende Wirkung der Heissquellenwässer ist also sehr verschieden.
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  • Akira SUEMURA
    1960 Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 122-169
    Published: May 25, 1960
    Released: August 06, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The problem of body temperature in old age, has been studied by many researchers from the middle of the nineteenth century, but their opinions on this problem are very conflicting. The reason why the conclusions are inconstant, would depend on the insufficiency of attention to the measuring apparatus, the method, the subjects and the results of the young which are necessary for comparison to that of the aged.
    For the purpose of solving this problem, the study was performed with precise notice as possible, at the first on the general clinical thermometry in old age, second on the measuring values of body temperatures in vast majority of old subjects of all classes in comparison with that of the young.
    1) i) On the measurement of the axillary temperature, the thermometer is to be inserted oblique-upperwards to the deepest region of the axilla and to be held for 20 minutes at least under complete closure of the axilla.
    ii) On the oral temperature, it is necessary that the mercury bulb of the oral thermometer be situated directly under the tongue and held there for 10 minutes with complete closure of the mouth.
    iii) On the rectal temperature, the rectal thermometer should be inserted to the depth of 6cm from the anus and be placed there for 5 minutes.
    iv) On the vaginal temperature, the thermometer with a round mercury bulb should be inserted to the fornix vaginae dorsalis and be placed there for 5 minutes.
    v) On the temperature of the external auditory meatus, it is necessary that the auditory thermometer should be inserted close to the auditory wall and placed there for 10 minutes.
    vi) In the clinic of the aged, the measurement of temperatures in the axilla or the mouth are more preferable, but when these measurements could not be performed correctly, it would be necessary to measure the rectal temperature. And experimental studies show that the measurements of temperatures in the vagina and the external auditory meatus are supplementary methods with their good advantages.
    2) i) The axillary temperatures of 1025 healthy old subjects (60-94yrs.) were measured with careful attention and statistical results showed that the distribution was almost normal and the mean value was 36.59°C with standard deviation of 0.39°C. In comparison with those of the young, this results revealed that the mean value of the aged was significantly lower with a difference of 0.30°C and the deviation degree significantly wider. There were no difference of the mean values and the deviations among the following groups: 60-69yrs., 70-79yrs., and over 80yrs., and it was observed that the axillary temperatures of old women were higher than that of old men but the difference of deviations was not significant.
    ii) The difference of the body temperature as to their locations was observed and the mean values were found to be higher in following order, i. e., the external auditory meatus, the axilla, the mouth and the rectum and the deviation degrees were wider in the external auditory meatus, the rectum, the mouth and the axilla respectively. And the vaginal temperature was higher than that of the rectum and observations on the symmetrical difference of the temperatures in the axilla and external auditory meatus showed no constant tendency.
    iii) The seasonal influence and diurnal variation of the axillary temperature was carefully studied and statistical results showed that the body temperature in old age was lowest during summer but no seasonal difference was found in their deviations, and the axillary temperatures in the afternoon were found to be higher than that of just after awaking or that of the morning and deviation to be smaller range.
    iv) According to the continuous observations of influences of day and night, sleep and hypnotic drug, meals, bath, change of posture and room temperature on the body temperature, it was observed that the regulation ability of the aged was more instable and irregular than that of
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