It is not enough to have the trainees simply acquire phonetic competence and skills in teacher training. The teacher must see through the learning types and patterns of each particular learner, and then consider what the learner has to learn first, and what would be the best way of teaching that particular learner.
A good phonetician should be equipped with the knowledge and expertise of 1) descriptive phonetics, 2) phonetic sciences, and 3) integrated understanding of phonetics and phonology. In this respect, unfortunately, training of phoneticians in Japan is far from being satisfactory. Proposals to remedy the current situation are given based on the author's personal experiences.
Possibilities in teaching experimental phonetics have been rapidly growing based on computerized measurement, analysis and presentation methods applicable to a large corpus of speech data. The possibilities may be effectively realized and utilized if proper teaching systems with well-trained teachers, syllabuses, textbooks and databases are prepared, which are adaptable to learners who may have a variety of interests. Along this line, the possible roles of the Phonetic Society of Japan are discussed.
Clinicians and researchers in the area of communication disorders know that two things are essential for the further development of their area. One is social awareness of the importance of speech communication in Japan. The other is the establishment of a professional area, speech science, which is known to be a multi-disciplinary area. It is expected that the Phonetic Society should expand the field to establish new speech science. More data on Japanese speech behavior and substantial multi-disciplinary approach provided by the Phonetic Society surely will be useful to the various related areas as well as the Society.
An experiment on the duration of English sounds was conducted using small to large units as a corpus: CVC-structured monosyllabic words, disyllabic words in which the stress pattern differentiates between nouns and verbs, phrases and compounds spelled in the same way, and a series of sentences in which the number of function words increases gradually. In the pronunciation of the English subjects, the well-known phenomenon of temporal compensation was corroborated between the vowel and the following voiced/voiceless consonant but not between the long/short vowel and the following consonant in monosyllabic words, or between any segment in the disyllabic words cited above. English pronounced by the Japanese subjects, on the other hand, showed phonetic features of Japanese such as pitch accent and mora-timing.
In Romanian, most obstruent sequences agree with regard to the value of [voice]. This voicing agreement is due to regressive assimilation conditioned by segmental adjacency. Previous treatments (Lombardi 1995a,b) in Optimality Theory fail to capture this phenomenon because they rely heavily on syllable structure. In this paper we argue that defining the Position-Specific Identity Constraint in terms of segmental adjacency instead of syllable structure can offer a better account of the phenomenon under consideration. There are two kinds of exceptions to this phenomenon. One is caused by the OCP effect on root nodes, while the other can be described as under-application of phonological processes caused by the higher-ranked Output-to-Output Identity Constraint.
In the Tokyo dialect of Japanese, High Vowel Devoicing can cause the accent nucleus to move away from its expected position. Based on compound noun data, this article shows that the domain in which the accent finds its landing site is not the foot, but must be extended to a higher-level prosodic constituent that consists of the accented foot and one of its neighbors. As a byproduct, postulation of this higher-level constituent contributes to an explanation of the mysterious accent pattern inheritance exhibited by compound nouns with a "long" right-hand element.
The writer's goal in this book is to establish a unified system for classifying aspects of phonetic production observed in the languages of the world. He emphasizes the importance of phonetic data, but he also warns that data should be handled within the framework of theory. The description is thorough and comprehensive, but the writer succeeds as well in offering the reader an analytic perspective on phonetics. This is an indispensable reference book for all students of phonetics. The section at the end of each chapter listing further reading is especially useful.