The present paper discusses an accent-epenthesis paradox in Winnebago prosody, which has long been rather controversial since the advent of an earlier metrical framework. The problem is that some word classes imply accent assignment be ordered before the epenthesis rule known as Dorsey's Law, while others imply the reverse ordering. I not only propose a new principled account of this paradox and other complicated accent positions in an integrated framework of Hayes's (1995) Metrical Stress Theory and Paradis's (1988) Theory of Constraints and Repair Strategies, but also present several arguments for the following specific claims: 1) Winnebago is a mora-counting, syllable-accenting language whose accent should be divided into main and subsidiary ones; 2) the underlying consonant cluster of an obstruent followed by a sonorant should be heterosyllabic, contrary to Alderete's (1995) claim; 3) the notion of 'foot weight' plays a crucial role in determining the application of either clash deletion or clash movement; and 4) my account as a whole has theoretical implications for the presence of extrametricality and metrical constituent.
Tables 1, 2 and 3 show the accent patterns of Kyoto Japanese at three stages of its development or simplification. Here H means that the pattern begins with the High Register, while L means that the pattern begins with the Low Register. (The Register is of no use in the description of Tokyo Japanese.) The marks "["and"]" indicate the points of Up-Turn and Down-Turn of the voice pitch. The Down-Turn may be interpreted as the Accent Kernel when it is culminative, that is when it has no cunterpart - Up-Turn, as is the case of Modern Japanese. The letter r in the example of Section 3.1 stands for the Rising Inclination (a rise in an undecided manner), and the letter n expresses the negation of it. In short, n means an almost even tone. The letter t in Section 4.1 means the Tense Inclination, and n here means "not tense" or a slow falling tone.
The tonal phenomena we observe are composed of tonal layers, such as accent in a narrow sense, phrase intonation, each of which has its own function. Phonological interpretation of accent means the separation of these layers and extraction of accent. Segmental environments are concerned with interpretation, but grammatical information is not. Morphophonemic regularities, such as compound noun accent rules, are treated and described differently from phonological interpretation. These findings on accent are based on my fieldwork.
The Central Dialect of Heian Japanese exhibits three tonal melodies and one fall in pitch accent, if any. The fall mark accent should not be treated as part of a tonal melody. They are both specified in the underlying lexical items, but are mutually independent. It is argued that a downstep existed in this dialect from an autosegmental perspective. Some revisions are made in treating the tone of the imperfective participle ending ru and the ku-nominalization. The imperative yo and the vocative yo are shown to be tonally distinct and to be two different morphemes. The tone of the perfective ari and the copula nari, and the behavior of the third tonal melody are also dealt with.
This book presents a new framework of intonation in which the author proposes to describe the intonational phonology of natural language in general. The framework put forward in this book is a revised and extended version of an intonational theory known as 'Autosegmental-metrical theory of intonational phonology' (AM Theory), which was originally proposed by Janet Pierrehumbert in her MIT dissertation nearly two decades ago. This book presents analyses of a wide range of intonational phenomena in a variety of languages in this new framework. It also provides a compact description of previous intonational models such as Halliday's and Fujisaki's, which are compared with the AM Theory in a comprehensive manner.
The collection of the papers which have been presented by Dr. Miyoko Sugito for these thirty years is intended to consist of seven volumes. Among them the first volume is published under the title Voice of the Japanese (pp.308, 1994), the second under the title English Spoken by the Japanese (pp.359, 1996) and the third under the title Japanese Sounds (pp.373, 1996). These three volumes contain the results obtained by her observations and analyses of acoustic data which heve been recorded by means of spectrograph, dynamic palatography and auditory tests. They are all worth while reading as papers of reference for the study of experimental phonetics.
This book is an introduction to English intonation and is the only Japanese book of its kind currently on sale. The notable features of the book are the summary of the different systems of intonational transcription and analysis that have been and are being used, and the detailed analyses of the actual uses of intonation found in a large corpus of spoken English. It is regrettable that tape recordings of the examples given are not available to the reader, but the book is indispensable for all those majoring in English phonetics.
This book contains eleven articles which argue for the importance of two prosodic units, the mora and the syllable, on the basis of a wide range of phonological phenomena. The first five discuss the roles of the units as constituents in phonology, and the latter six as segmentation units in speech perception. We will outline the contents of each article, review the treatments of the units in current trends in phonological theory and language processing, and witness a happy combination of theoretical and psycholinguistic approaches taken throughout this book.
This volume presents a comprehensive discussion of the major topics and concepts of phonetics. The main body of the book falls into two parts, General Phonetics and English Phonetics, which are subdivided into ten and seven chapters respectively. At the beginning of the second part, the author provides a well-balanced introduction to regional and social varieties of English. The best merit of the present work lies in the fact that the author undertakes a very appropriate attempt to include several chapters on Japanese phonetics. On the whole, this book makes clear and informative reading for those generally interested in general and English phonetics as well as those interested in Japanese phonetics.