Chiba and Kajiyama's "The Vowel" was a milestone in the study of vowel production. This work was made possible on the background of advancement of science in this country. Evolution of acoustical sciences in these days is reviewed. Completion of this monograph should have opened days of glory in phonetic and acoustic research in Japan. But the Pacific War broke out before publication and Japanese science was isolated from the international scientific community. Further tragedies of war on sciences and scientists and post-war developments are described.
This paper describes how the experimental study published as Chiba and Kajiyama's The Vowel, Its Nature and Structure was conducted in pre-war Japan. Human, institutional, and instrumental environments of the study were investigated based upon various documents, including newly found laboratory notes written by Masato Kajiyama. Survey of the early citations of The Vowel, both in home and abroad, was also reported.
本論文ではChiba and Kajiyamaによる声道模型を復元した。彼らの模型では材料として油粘土が使用されているが,本論文では加工のしやすさと透明性の理由からアクリル樹脂を使用した。復元は,Chiba and Kajiyamaによる日本語5母音に対する声道形状の測定に基づいた。声門側の端に音源を入力することで,各模型が対応する母音を産出することを確認した。さらに,これらの模型を使用することが音声科学における教育の現場で有効であることが示された。
Focusing on the process of mid-vowel raising (*e>i, *o>u), which took place throughout the Ryukyuan-speaking area in the past, this paper provides one type of method for historical phonology using the data collected from modern dialects. Based on the pattern of change shown by the spirantization of the /k/ sound (*k>h), observed in the northern region of the main Ryukyu island, which took place before [-high] vowels (*a, *e, *o ), and focusing on the fact that the /k/ is spirantized just in front of *o, but not in front of *e in a number of dialects in this region, this paper concludes that the process of mid-vowel raising proceeded from the front vowel (e>i) rather than the back one (o>u). Thus, this paper shows that an examination of a trace of competing change may often provide a key for analyzing the process of a certain change already completed in the past.
Eight native speakers of English from four countries (England, the U. S., Canada, and Australia) uttered 10 sets of 26 semantically ambiguous sentences used in earlier studies on English intonation and location of nucleus, and the contours of the overall utterances and of the sentence nuclei were carefully identified and examined using sound analyzing software ‘Onseirokubunken.’ The examination found the following tendencies: the choices became nuclei in alternative questions; a pause was inserted before “or” in alternative questions; sentences with the structure“All...not” meaning partial negation ended with falling tone; sentences with the structure “not...all” meaning partial negation ended with falling-rising tone; the preceding focus had a greater prominence in cleft sentences having two foci; and so forth. In comparison with the description in the earlier studies, the overall rate of concordance of intonation pattern was 62% and that of the nucleus was 56%.
This book consists of 24 papers written by the late Mr. Takaji Kamimura. He was a Professor of Kagoshima University, and he published many papers on Kyushu dialect during his life-time. This book contains the most important papers of his works. The contents of this book are; 1) an out-line of Kyushu dialect, 2) the phonemes of Kyushu dialect, 3) the grammar of Kyushu dialect, 4) the vocabulary of Kyushu dialect, 5) the dialect of the south-western island of Japan. Every chapter is highly revealing, especially interesting is the second chapter which mentions the dialect's long vowels, applosives and nasal sounds.
This book deals with linguistic rhythmic structures of human languages. The author has proposed two kinds of rhythmic structure, each of which depends upon the rhythmic rates. He argues, moreover, that there is a hierarchical relationship between them. This hypothesis was tested by a number of experiments with variety of subjects.