Based on the analysis of a damaged document from the Ilkhanid period, this paper elucidates several diplomatic points and poses questions about arranging and issuing documents of the Ilkhanid chancellery. This scroll-shaped document of 726 AH/1326 CE is considered the oldest document in the National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran (SAMI), and a roll from the beginning section is lost. The script style is šikasta-ta‘līq (broken ta‘līq) popularly practiced in the period. On the recto of the document, four seals are stamped: an āl-tamġā seal (vermilion seal) in Arabic script, another āl-tamġā in ’Phags-pa and Arabic scripts, a qarā-tamġā seal (black seal) in Arabic script, and another black seal in Arabic script. On the verso are six black seals, which are engraved in Uigur and Arabic scripts. These seals are the oldest examples of personal seals and doubtless show various practices of the Ilkhanid chancellery. Through the examination of this document, it has become clear how to stamp the seal on o icial documents. The practice of āl-tamġā seal derives from the Mongols, the Turks, and China. The āl-tamġā seal was stamped on the prede ned place where the date and place of issue was written and on each joint line of two sheets of paper. This decree was issued in the place named Kūhak. Judging from other documents, the issuer is Čoban, the leading amīr of the Ilkhan Abū Sa‘īd. The decree con rmed a certain person’s ownership of a village and that the village in question was not included in the īnǧū (crown property). This paper attempts to reconstruct the original form of the document. Also, the text of another comparable document is presented in the appendix.
The decree of Amīr Čoban dated 726 AH/1326 CE (National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran, s.250) has four kinds of imprints, which consist of two āl-tamġā seals (vermilion seals) and two black seals. Among them, one is a square-shaped vermilion seal in Arabic script. Another is a square-shaped vermilion seal in ’Phags-pa and Arabic scripts. This document is a typical decree issued by a high-ranking great amīr because the āl-tamġā and qarā-tamġā seals were stamped on the prede ned places. However, it is the singular case in which a document is stamped with two kinds of āl-tamġā seal. Three of the four seals found on this decree were undoubtedly Amīr Čoban’s, and must have yielded the strongest authority to it.
This paper presents a decipherment of six seals stamped on the verso side of a Persian decree issued by the Ilkhanid amīr Čoban in 726 AH/1326 CE. It can be assumed that those seals, stamped for validation of the decree, belong to the Ilkhanid leading vassals. Identifying holders of the seals would assist historical research of the Ilkhanid chancellery system.
Of the Ardabīl documents of the Mongol period, this paper presents a Persian land sale contract of 660 AH/1261–62 CE, with an Uigur-Turkic note attached. It should be a unique source displaying the reality of the local society in Iran under the early Mongol rule. It should deserve further comparative studies with other contracts and bilingual documents of the Ardabīl collection.
This paper presents the philological analysis of one of the Ardabīl documents: An Uigur- Turkic decree of the Timurid prince Mīrān Šāh, dated to 800 AH/1398 CE. It is the oldest of the Timurid Uigur-Turkic decrees thus far known, and the only one accompanied by a Persian summary. It attests to the patronage of the Timurid rulers for the Safavid Order in Ardabīl, and offers significant information on the administration, chancellery, taxation, and many other aspects of the early Timurid rule, and merits further investigation from the historical viewpoint.
This paper attempts to analyze the nature, formation, and administration of the īnǧū in Iran under the Ilkhanate. The term īnǧū, derived from the Mongolian word emčü, refers to the private lands and subjects of Ilkhan, other Hülegüids, or other Chinggisids. During Abaγa Qan’s reign, the influence of J̌öči, Čaγatai, and Ögödei families in Iran gradually fell and the īnǧū of the Hülegüids began to increase. Although an Ilkhan’s īnǧū formed during his reign usually passed to the next Ilkhan, the Ilkhan’s sons had authority over the īnǧū that originated from before the Ilkhan’s enthronement. In contrast to īnǧū, the term dalāy was applied to dīwānī property administered by the supreme dīwān.
This paper reviews data from archaeological excavations at five key sites in the northeastern region of the Sea of Galilee: Tel Dover, Tel ‘En Gev, Tel Hadar, Tel Bethsaida, and Tel Kinrot. Cities were established during Iron Age IB at four out of five of these sites, all of which experienced major changes in their layout at the beginning of Iron Age IIA. The second cities lasted until the end of Iron Age IIB. Iron Age IB cities likely reflect the Kingdom of Geshur, and Iron Age IIA–B cities the southern expansion of Aram Damascus. The material culture of these cities, particularly the architecture, is nonetheless more similar to that of the Aramaean and Neo-Hittite cities in northern Syria than to Canaanite cities in the southern Levant during both periods.