Objective measurements of the color of the nasal mucosa are of great value for understanding the nasal. and paranasal pathophysiology. The color analysis of the nasal mucosa was done using two new equipments that were specially designed by us as oxymeter and reflectance spectrophotometer. The results which were thus obtained were as follows. 1) information of the mucosal hemodynarnici in the nose could be obtained by oxymetric analysis. 2) reflectance spectrophotometeric observations revealed significant difference between normal and pathological conditions of the nasal mucosa. 3) these methods, especially the latter seem to be.much more useful cliniCal practice as well as for research of the mucosal pathophysiology in the upper airway and oropharynx.
In order to determine the effects of freezing on the cochlear membranous labyrinth, a cryoprobe was Applied tothe 2nd and/or 3rd turns of the cochleas of guinea pigs.Freezing was maintained for 1-5 minutes at-60°C. Animalswere killed immediately after freezing, 30 minutes, 12 hour 24 ours, 3 days after cryogurgery. A light microscopic investigation was carried out on sectioned specimens stainedwithHematoxylinand Eosin or surface preparations. Definite thologic changes were visible within frozen membranous tissues. However, the amount ofdamage depended upon the duration of freezing. Initial histologic changes were the destruction of intermediate cells of the stria vascularis and anincrease in vascular permeability of small blood vessels of the lateral cochlearwalls (spiral ligament andstria vascularis). Remarkable atrophy of the membranous labyrinth occurred withinthefrozen membranous areas ofthe animals which survived more than 12 hours after urgery. The present investigation revealed that cryosurgery is most useful for destroying the inner earfunction without opening the bony labyrinthine walls.
Cisplatinum (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II), an inorganic compound with potent antineoplastic activity against various experimental tumor systems, has been known to have some untoward side effects such as nephrotoxicity, bone marrow depression, and gastrointestinal toxicity, as frequently found in other anticancer drugs. In addition to these side effects, there have been several clinical reports on the ototoxicity of Cisplatinum ; that is, patients treated with large doses of this agent often exhibited tinnitus, temporary or permanent hearing loss for high frequency tones. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the possible toxic effect on the organ of Corti of the guinea pig cochleas, and to compare it with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotics and the other agents with ototoxicity. The results obtained in this study were as follows. 1) Ototoxicity was evaluated by the disappearance of Preyer's pinna-reflex in response to high frequency pure tones and by histopathological examination of the organ of Corti of the guinea pig cochleas with surface preparation technique. 2) The animals treated with repeated intraperitoneal injections of Cisplatinum (e. g., a daily dose of 3mg/kg for 5-7 days for a total of approximately 15-20mg/kg) developed permanent hearing loss and histological lesions with a scattered or an irregular patchy form of the outer hair cell degeneration in the lower-half of the cochlear turns (from the basal end to the second turn of the cochlea). No obvious morphological alteration was observed in a row of the inner hair cells throughout the cochlea by light microscopy. 3) Thus, the lesions appearing in the organ of Corti following administration of Cisplatinum were limited to the outer hair cells and considered to be fairly less severe as compared with the cases of administration of neomycin or nitrogen mustard N-oxide, which had previously been reported by us and the form of the cochlear lesions due to this inorganic agent might be characterized by “patchy degeneration pattern” of the outer hair cells in the lower half of the cochlea.
Tracheal stenosis may be producedb y local inflammation, n eoplasmas, t raumas, foreign bodies or paralysis of the recurrent nerve and may require emergency tracheostomy. The authors report an unusual case of tracheal stenosis caused by subglottic infiltration of leukemic lesions. The clinical manifestations, the course and pathological findings are reported in detail.
The authors report a case of neurilemoma of the trigemial nerve involving the base of the skull in a 33-year-old male. Otoneurological examination revealed less prominent caloric nystagmus as compared to the cases with acoustic neuromas, while optokinetic and eye-tracking tests showed findings similar to those of acoustic neuromas. In roentogenograms, a bony defect was confirmed at the apex of the petrosal bone without enlargement of the internal auditory meatus. Computerized tomography has been found to be of great value in diagnosis of the disease and in determination of its location, size and nature.
Recently, reports concerning malignant melanoma have often been seen in various fields especially in general surgery, dermatology, and head and neck surgery. One of the reasons why malignant melanomahas come to attract so much attention is that it defies every kind of therapy and thai the prognosis is very poor. We had a patient suffering from malignant melanoma that was considered to have originated in the nasal cavity. The authors report the clinical course of the case together with the autopsy findings.
High-frequency electrocoagulation that uses frequencies of 105 to 107 Hz with a wavelength of 30m to 3km can be used in various otolaryngological diseases such as nasal polyps, allergic nose, chronic sinusitis and others. The author introduced his modification of the apparatus and new applications