The local effect of some antibiotics has been shown to be toxic to the sensory cells of the inner ear. However, little work has been done to study the toxic effect of antibiotics on the olfactory mucosa. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate histological changes in the olfactory mucosa of the mouse by use of various antibiotics. The antibiotics used in this experiment were Kanamycin sulphate (KM), Streptomycin sulphate (SM), Crystalline Penicillin G potassium (PC-G) and Cephalothin Na (CET). Moreover, four antibiotics were given either by locally or intramuscularly without anesthesia. The results were as follows: 1) Intramuscular administration The most severe changes were observed in the olfactory mucosa after administration of KM. The olfactory epithelium showed thickness and slight irregularity on the surface. The olfactory nerve underwent severe degeneration and disappeared. Moreover, a decrease in the number of the olfactory cilia, and swelling or separation of the cytoplasm were observed. After administration of SM however, the degeneration was slight. No changes were detected after administration of PC-G or CET. 2) Local administration The changes in the olfactory mucosa were greater than those of the systemic administration. After administration of either KM or SM, about 50% of the olfactory epithelium were denuded. Moreover, the olfactory vesicles, olfactory cilia, and microvilli were disappeared. The olfactory nerve also underwent degeneration and disappeared. However, the degeneration was slight after the administration of PC-G and CET. After administration of KM and SM (aminoglucoside antibiotics) histological changes of the olfactory mucosa were prominent. In Summary, the author suggested that the olfactory disorder might result from the administration of aminoglucoside antibiotics.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contractility of the nasal mucous membrane in the presence of epinephrine and the hypersensitiveness of the nasal mucous membrane towards acetylcholine in patients with nasal allergies. Comparative investigations were also conducted between the above subjects and subjects with normal nasal mucous membranes by measuring the nasal breathing resistance in order to detect whether it is a useful measuring tool in diagnosing hypersensitivity of the upper respiratory tract. The results of this investigation revealed that there was a significant difference in the rise of nasal breathing resistance in the acetylcholine induced nasal mucous membrane tests between normal patients and those with nasal allergies. However, a test investigating the contractility of the nasal mucous membrane through epinephrine spraying failed to differentiate between the nasal allergy and the normal nasal mucous membrane.
The main objectives of the conservative treatment of chronic sinusitis include: 1. evacuation of rhinorrhea, 2. opening of the natural ostium and 3. improvement of nasal respiration. In order to attain the above results, the following conservative means are available: a. periodical nose-blowing, b. use of nasal application, c. nasal spray, d. nasal drops, e. aspiration, f. nasal irrigation, g. aerosol therapy, h. Proetz's displacement method, i. antral puncture and irrigation, j. submucosal injections, k. oral medication and 1. muscular injections. The author discusses advantages of each method and the drugs to be used for effective treatment results in chronic sinusitis without resorting to surgical intervention.