This paper is that concerning to the procedure to design a Ions system having aspberical surfaces. In this method, the residual aberrations of a spherical lens system are reduced step by step by the appropriate deformations of the refracting surfaces within the system following the differential correcting method similar to those used for a spherical system. Though it is only for a few examples at present, hopeful results have been obtained.
It has been our industrial practice to use pitch polisher for polishing optical glasses. But we have not had enough knowledge about the quantitativehardness and elasticity of pitch. Excepting some skilled workers, many people are troubling how to know about them. So we have tested them, with two gauges deviced in our laboratory. Discussed problems. are as follows. 1. Introduction. 2. Characteristics of test pieces. 3. Top figure of the spindle of gauge. 4. Pressure of the measurement. 5. Seasoning of the pitch. 6. Relation between. hardness & temperature. 7. Mechanism of gauge. 8. Relation between hardness & thickness. 9. Elasticity of pitch. 10. New device of measurement. 11. Observed effect in a few factories.
Resolving power of a photographic lens is tested through photographing the test chart and the result is represented with the maximum number of linesper millimeter resolved. But the value varies relatively to the sort of photographic emulsion used in the test and the kind of development. A new quantity provisionally named T-number is reported, by which the quality of a photogrraphic lens is represented independently of the emulsion and development: the value is oneand the same for each measurement with any emulsion or development.
The relation between the critical angle of regular reflection and the roughness (R. M. S. value) of the surface of metals and glasses were investigated by a similar apparatus as Jentzsch's. The relation between the critical angle θ and R. M. S. value of the surfaces h. are as follows: _??_ Where, λ is wave length and k are constants which is defined by the profile of the surfaces. k beeing 1/3 for glasses and steels, and 1/2 for chrome plated.
The improved phase microscope with cross-shaped phase plate was constructed and we studied into the image of this microscope. The amplitude grating was used for the test-piece. There is a strong tendency for boundaries between areas of transparent and opaque parts to be delineated by an abrupt change of intensity. In this paper, this abrupt change (edge effect) and the contrast of image were studied.
Measurement has been carried out on the linearity for illumination intensity and the spectral sensitivity of the lead sulphide, selenide and telluride photoconductive cells prepared by the author. The results of measurements show that the ratio of conductivity during illumination to that before illumination is expressed as a function of incident energy and cell temperature. The spectral response of lead selenide photoconductive cell is also modified by a trace of oxygen during preparing process as in lead sulphide photoconductive cell.