§ 1. Studies in the Early Stage. § 2. Baker's Investigation. § 3.Later Developments. § 4. Condensation of Water on Clean Solid Surfaces. § 5. Influence of Surface Electric Charge. § 6. Mechanism of Physical Cleaning of Surfaces. § 7. Unsolved Problems. Studies of breath figures sincethe end of the last century are reviewed (§ § 1, 2, and 3). The author's opinions together with some new results are described (§ § 4, 5, 6 and 7).
The possibility of resolving foams by means of mechanical vibration has been confirmed. The mechanical vibration used is 100c. p. s. in frequency and 0-0.5mm in total amplitude. The conditions of experiment are that samples are solutions of casein-kaolin and room-temperature is 25°C. As a result of experiment it is able to plot the effective range of mechanical vibration for resolving foams versus viscosity and some vibrating configurations of the solution surface in the glassware are observed.
Nickel films newly formed by evaporation were kept at room temperature in high vacuum, and a decrease of the low-temperature (1833°C) adsorptionof nitrogenand a decrease of electrical resistance of films were observed. By the use of these phenomena, one might study the stabilization process of films formed under various conditions at various temperatures. Under proper assumptions, a rate equation was derived for the decrease of adsorption site and activation energies forstabilization were estimated. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) Films deposited on room temperature wall have higher stability than those on low, tem-perature (-183°C.) wall, while the presence of gas at evaporationhas no effect on the stability of the film. 2) The activation energy estimated from the nitrogen adsorption method is nearly the same as that estimated fromthe resistance decrease method, which indicates that nitrogen adsorption and excess scattering of conduction electrons are both mainly due to latticeimperfections.
The writers tried to measure the instantaneous speed of a small motor by settingthe low-pass filter, if not the result would be far from expectation, between a wound type potentiometer and a differentiator, and then deduced the simple analytical relation between the true speed and measured value. This paper furtherdescribes their experimental studies in detail, giving actual applications and some discussions on differentiator.
A general formula for surface potential caused by molecular orientation is givenby means of which analysis is made for the oriented adsorption of water, molecule. A probable molecular model is aso given for the adsorption inthe low pressure range.
Ia this report, three kinds of fissures of sheet glass grew up by rapidly cooling are shown experimentally, and the mechanism of rupture and fracture is brieflydiscussed. On the other side, it is proved that the coating of glass surfaces by protecting films is very effective in order to prevent the sheet glass fromrupture and fracture at the thermal emergency.
Technical Rerearch Laboratory, Broadcasting Corporation of Japan Ion current of the ionization manometer includes photoelectric emission of the ion collector by soft X-ray produced by electron bombardment at the anode, and this causes an error. Authors measured photoelectric current of the ordinary ionization manometer comparing with the Bayard type ionization manometer which has low photoelectric current by the special tube construction, and discovered that residual vacuum factor (ratio of ion current to electron current) is about 900×10-9 at anode voltages of 200 volts and this correspond to ion. current at 1.5×10-7 mmHg, for this rason the ordinary ionization manometer is inaccurate at order of 10-7 mmHg.