The review of the double focusing mass spectrographs and some special mass spectroscopes is given together with a brief description on the ion trajectories in magnetic and (-or) electric fields. Also, the mass spectrometer used for routine measurements and its applications are described.
Dehydration by infra-red ray of white cotton-cloth, 178% wet basis percentage was examined graphs of electric power consumption against wet percentage were obtained, by which the mechanism of the dehydration was studied, the conclusion are as follows. (1) At the dehydration, the use of the wave length λm=1.45μ a is the most advantageous. (2) As the method of dehydration, illumination upon a pile of from 3 to 5 sheets of the specimen is the most profitable.
Combining the Knudsen gauge with dynamic vacuum system, the accurate method of measuring the vapor pressure as low as 10-10_??_10-2 Hg was established. The possibility of the absolute measurement of pressure by means of Knudsen gauge was investigated and it was found that gases and vapors which have nearly same accommodation coefficient show the same gauge readings. Gauge reading of hydrogen gas, which has relatively small accommodation coefficient, wasabout 70_??_80% of other gases and vapors. The outgas of the various vacuum materials was measured and sensitibity of the ionization gauge for the various gases and vapors was measured and discussed.
It is not so easy to produce iron single crystals which are oriented principal crystallographic axes by using only the recrystallization method. We have found, however, an easy producing method which uses the kernels of single crystals having oriented, principal crystallographic axes. In this method, it is necessary that specimens (99.97% Fe) are carefully annealed in a moist hydrogen stream untilthey nearly lose the cold rolling texture. It must be also needed that the surfaces of the specimens and crystal kernels are as clear as possible, avoiding the etching of the surfaces.
Molecular orientations and crystal structure of thin films of some basic esters on SiC natural surface and metal surface were studied by electron diffraction reflection method. Didecyl and didodecyl adipate films made from the evaporation of its benzol solution take no orientation but didodecyl sebacate film takes orientation and crystallizes in the 2-dimensional crystal with its long chain axis _??_ormal to the basal surface. The built up films of the above three dibasic esters take always orientation. The structure of didodecyl sebacate crystal is orthorhombic with lattice constants a0=7.45±0.03Å, b0=5.01±0.031Å and similar to the n-paraffin. From the results, it is concluded that the dibasic ester molecule is straight and attacks at the methyl group with basal surface, not at C=O. Relation of the, orientations with lubricating properties was also discussed.
As the ‘silicosis’ is considered to be caused by mine dust, fine mine dust particles were studied by electron-microscope. For the sampling, a konimeter and a thermal precipitator were used. According to the obtained electron-micrographs of mine dust, the dust particles from wet drilling were more spherical than those from dry drilling or from blasting. In the former case, some large coagurations of dust particles, probably owing to the existence of water droplets, were observed. The size distribution curves were approximately of exponential type and the rates of number of particles smaller than 0.1μ were 30% to 80%. The minimum size of a mine dust was about 50mμ.
Al single crystals were compressed or rolled 10-30% at room temperature and annealed at 250°C and measured their hardness by a micro-Vickers hardness tester. Hardness does not decrease monotonously with the time of annealing but shows some anomalous hardening effects. Variation of the lattice constant measured by back reflection of Cu Kα shows some irregularities and closely related to those of hardness, the maximum of the deviation from the lattice constant of well annealed Al being coincided to the peak of hardness. X-ray diffraction patterns show some anomalies, such as (i) double diffraction by (111)and (242), (ii) double diffraction by (113) and (420), (iii) Kα3 line by (333). All these patterns appear near that of (333).
A new method of cinematography was devised by the authors, for taking pictures of the. formation of ice crystals in water. By this, the successive stages were observed in the develop-ment of ice crystals. The conditions for giving a circular ice-disc, stellar crystal and needle-like crystal were studied. In every case, ice-discs were the slowest to be produced, stellar and especially needle-like crystal requiring less time as seen in Fig. 3-7. Some tiny particles as silver. iodide, kaolin, carbon or clay were not directly active as nuclei of ice crystals in this experiment.