A high frequency induction furnace for melting and casting the metals in high vacuum has, been designed and performed. Its operation mechanism consists of two steps; (1) When the metal was melted and degassed in a silica tube, the crucible hanged by two steel wires is wound up by a pair of pulley through the silica tube, and is brought into the upper tank. (2) Then, the crucible is rotated by rotating system and poured into a mold placed at a suitable position.Such a mechanism makes it very easy to melt and cast in high vacuum (ca. 3×10-5 mmHg) within 30 mins to 2 hours. The vacuum pumping system consists of a 4" oil diffusion pump of 200L/sec and a 400 L/min mechanical pump. The power is supplied by a 5 kW vacuum tube oscilator with 3 MC. Maximum melting capacity may be as large as 1kg. The vacuum melted metals have excellent workability and improved magnetic properties.
The field in the rectangular cell with two parallel and flat plates as electrodes has been analyzed. In the following, no considerations given to the polarization phenomena for mathematical convenience. As example, taking the value of 1 as γ/α, the current distribution at the surface of the electrode has been calculated in detail. And moreover, the diagrams, which are showing the numerical relation such as the ratio of the currents on both the inner and the outer surfaces, the total current patbing through the, electrode, and others, are presented as Figs. 8 and 9. It may be available for a reference on the design of electrolyzer.
Electron Diffraction studies of electrolytically polished surfaces were chiefly examined by the reflection method. As highly polished surfaces gave the diffuse haloes by the effect of extremely small projections, it is difficultto interpret the results. The author made the thin films of copper, steel and stainiss steels by electrolytically polishing and examined it by the transmission method. Electrolytically polished Cu gave the transmission pattern of Cu itself, although polished Cu gave the various patterns in reflection. Polished steel, 13 Cr or 18 Cr stainless steel and 18-8 Cr-Ni stainless steel gave the patterns of green rust or γ-FeOOH, body centered cubic pattern and the mixed patterns of γ-Fe, Cr and hexagonal lattice respectively.
Variations of surface potential were measured by the ordinary oscillating condenser method, on the adsorption of water, ammonia and carbon dioxide gases on the surfaces of powders of several metal oxides, glass and graphite, which were made thin plates with a press. The orientation of adsorbed moleculeswas estimated from the change of potential. As shown in Table 1 and Fig. 4, 5, on more acid oxides, the basic end, that is, the electronegative end, of the molecule is orientated nearer to the surface, and vice versa. The consideration from the theory of acid-base and the result of this experiment conform to each other.
Changes of surface potentials of Hex. CdS single crystals and powders caused by irradiation of visible light were investigated. Their dependence on wavelengths, decay after irradiation, superposition of the two beams of different wavelengthsand effects of heat treatment were measured in the ordinary atmosphere. From the qualitative discussions about these results, it may be expectedthat the photosensitive surface barriers exist in Hex. CdS crystals.
A twin type X-ray G-M counter, contacted with a Common separator, was constructed, and the following are its some applications. 1) the differential curve of the intensify curve is recorded automatically by the twin counter to find out accurately the position of the peak of the X-ray reflected line. 2) the surface stress distributions of the works are continuously recorded by the fixed twin counter.