The ultrasonic absorption and velocity in dilute high polymer solutions are nearly independent of molecular weight and have quite different values from those of monomer solutions. Therefore, the amount of polymerization of any intermediate product of polymerization can be determined from the ultrasonic absorption or velocity of the dilute solution. The ultrasonic absorption (4.70 mc/s) and the ultrasonic velocity (954 kc/s) of dilute bezene solutions of vinyl acetate in different polymerization stages were measured. The estimated values of the amount of polymerization from absorption, velocity and density respectively are in satisfactory agreement with each other.
It is known that photographic paper is coloured without development and fixing when it is exposed to the daylight or a light source of relatively short wave length. When the precipiltation elements fall on a photographic paper and melt on it, the. areas wet by the precipitation elements are coloured a different colour from the other unwet areas. By the use of this phenomenon, the size or shape of the precipitation elements which fell on a photographic paper are simply recor, ded on the photographic paper. In this work, the relation between the volume of individual precipitation elements and the records coloured by them on the photographic paper were inves-tigated.
Contaminated layer on the positive electrode in a vacuum tube liberates gas under bombard-ment by electrons emitted from cathode and deteriorates the activity of the cathode. This pheno-menon was ascertained by simultaneous measurements of gas pressure and emission current. In the present experiment oxide coated cathode is used as bombarding and detecting cathode simul-taneously. Degree of contamination of various metallic materials and effect of various treatments were compared by the degree of emission decay based on the above principle. This method has proved o be simple and direct in detecting the contamination of electrodes harmful to cathode.
Powdered foil of aluminum arrange themselves parallel to ultrasonic wave fronts, if they are placed in a ultrasonic field. Using this method found by Pohlman, we could take some photographs of the sonic silhouette of blocks of polystyrol with. air gaps. Making images of the samples by duralumin lens, ultrasonography was also taken.